Skip to main content

Selected Bibliography

Published onMar 27, 2020
Selected Bibliography

In selecting the references listed below, I have tried to compile a near-comprehensive bibliography of the water crisis. That said, I have not included everything cited in the book’s endnotes. I have left out day-to-day news coverage as well as other articles and documents I deemed to be of less than general interest. Any source not cited in full here is cited in full in the endnotes.

Abernethy, Jacob, Cyrus Anderson, Chengyu Dai, Arya Farahi, Linh Nguyen, Adam Rauh, Eric Schwartz, Wenbo Shen, Guangsha Shi, Jonathan Stroud, Xinyu Tan, Jared Webb, and Sheng Yang. “Flint Water Crisis: Data-Driven Risk Assessment via Residential Water Testing.” Paper presented at Bloomberg Data for Good Exchange Conference, New York, September 25, 2016.

Abernethy, Jacob, Alex Chojnaki, Chengyu Dai, Arya Farahi, Eric Schwartz, Jared Webb, Guangsha Shi, and Daniel T. Zhang. “A Data Science Approach to Understanding Residential Water Contamination.” Paper presented at KDD, Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 13–17, 2017.

Abernethy, Jacob, Alex Chojnacki, Arya Farahi, Eric Schwartz, and Jared Webb. “ActiveRemediation: The Search for Lead Pipes in Flint, Michigan.” In KDD ’18: The 24th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery & Data Mining, August 19–23, 2018, London, United Kingdom, 5–14. New York: ACM, 2018.

Abouk, Rahi, and Scott Adams. “Birth Outcomes in Flint in the Early Stages of the Water Crisis.” Journal of Public Health Policy 39, no. 1 (February 2018): 68–85.

Abuelaish, Izzeldin, and Kirstie K. Russell. “The Flint Water Contamination Crisis: The Corrosion of Positive Peace and Human Decency.” Medicine, Conflict and Survival 33, no. 4 (2017): 242–249.

Adams, John. Risk. London: Routledge, 1995.

Agamben, Giorgio. State of Exception. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Agyeman, Julian, David Schlosberg, Luke Craven, and Caitlin Matthews. “Trends and Directions in Environmental Justice: From Inequity to Everyday Life, Community, and Just Sustainabilities.” Annual Review of Environment and Resoures 41 (November 2016): 321–340.

Alinsky, Saul. Rules for Radicals: A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals. New York: Vintage Books, 1989.

Allen, Barbara L. Uneasy Alchemy: Citizens and Experts in Louisiana’s Chemical Corridor Disputes. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003.

Allen, Joshua M., Amy A. Cuthbertson, Hannah K. Liberatore, Susana Y. Kimura, Anurag Mantha, Marc A. Edwards, and Susan D. Richardson. “Showering in Flint, MI: Is There a DBP Problem?” Journal of Environmental Sciences 58 (June 2017): 271–284.

American Society of Civil Engineers. 2017 Infrastructure Report Card: A Comprehensive Assessment of America’s Infrastructure. 2017.

Anand, Nikhil. “The Banality of Infrastructure.” Items: Insights from the Social Sciences. Social Science Research Council, June 27, 2017.

Anand, Nikhil. Hydraulic City: Water and the Infrastructures of Citizenship in Mumbai. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2017.

Anand, Nikhil. “Pressure: The PoliTechnics of Water Supply in Mumbai.” Cultural Anthropology 26, no. 4 (2011): 542–564.

Anderson, Michelle Wilde. “Democratic Dissolution: Radical Experimentation in State Takeovers of Local Governments.” Fordham Urban Law Journal 39, no. 3 (March 2012): 577–623.

Anderson, Michelle Wilde. “The New Minimal Cities.” Yale Law Journal 123, no. 5 (March 2014): 1118–1227.

Arbulu, Agustin V., and Daniel Levy. “A One-Year Update on the Recommendations in The Flint Water Crisis: Systemic Racism Through the Lens of Flint.” Michigan Civil Rights Commission, March 26, 2018.

Aronoff, Myron, and Jan Kubik. Anthropology and Political Science: A Convergent Approach. New York: Berghahn Books, 2013.

Atari, Dominic Odwa, Isaac Luginaah, and Jamie Baxter. “‘This Is the Mess That We Are Living In’: Residents Everyday Life Experiences of Living in a Stigmatized Community.” GeoJournal 76, no. 5 (October 2011): 483–500.

Athey, Stephanie, K. M. Ferebee, and Wendy S. Hesford. “The Poisoning of Flint and the Moral Economy of Human Rights.” Prose Studies 38, no. 1 (2016): 1–11.

August, Melissa. “The Plumbing Professor.” Time, June 8, 2004.

Auyero, Javier, and Débora Alejandra Swistun. Flammable: Environmental Suffering in an Argentine Shantytown. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Barber, Benjamin. If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013.

Barham, Tim. “Class Action Water Crisis: Resolving Flint’s New Split over CAFA’s Local Controversy Exception.” Baylor Law Review 70, no. 1 (March 2018): 149–170.

Bassett, Philip A. Soldier of Truth: The Trials of Rev. Edward Pinkney. N.p.: Self-published, 2016.

Baum, Fran, Colin MacDougall, and Danielle Smith. “Participatory Action Research.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60, no. 10 (October 2006): 854–857.

Beck, Ulrich. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage Publications, 1992.

Beecher, Janice. The Regionalization of Water Utilities: Perspectives, Literature Review, and Annotated Bibliography. National Regulatory Research Institute. Columbus, OH, July 1996.

Belenky, Mary Field, Blythe McVicker Clinchy, Nancy Rule Goldberger, and Jill Mattuck Tarule. Women’s Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind. New York: Basic Books, 1986.

Bell, Shannon Elizabeth. Fighting King Coal: The Challenges to Micromobilization in Central Appalachia. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2016.

Bellinger, David C. “Lead Contamination in Flint—An Abject Failure to Protect Public Health.” New England Journal of Medicine 374 (March 2016): 1101–1103.

Bendix, Aria. “How Flint Citizens Are Working Together to Save Their Community.” CityLab, April 29, 2016.

Benford, Robert D., and David S. Snow. “Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment.” Annual Review of Sociology 26 (2000): 611–639.

Benz, Terressa A. “Toxic Cities: Neoliberalism and Environmental Racism in Flint and Detroit Michigan.” Critical Sociology (2017): 1–14.

Berfield, Susan. “Financial Martial Law in Michigan.” Bloomberg Businessweek, April 28, 2011.

Berliner, Joshua V. “Environmental Injustice/Racism in Flint, Michigan: An Analysis of the Bodily Integrity Claim in Mays v. Snyder as Compared to Other Environmental Justice Cases.” Pace Environmental Law Review 35, no. 108 (2017): 108–134.

Bidwell, David. “Is Community-Based Participatory Research Postnormal Science?” Science, Technology, and Human Values 34, no. 6 (November 2009): 741–761.

Björkman, Lisa. Pipe Politics, Contested Waters: Embedded Infrastructures of Millennial Mumbai. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2013.

Blee, Kathleen M. Democracy in the Making: How Activist Groups Form. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Blocker, T. Jean, and Douglas Lee Eckberg. “Environmental Issues as Women’s Issues: General Concerns and Local Hazards.” Social Science Quarterly 70, no. 3 (September 1989): 586–593.

Bomey, Nathan. Detroit Resurrected: To Bankruptcy and Back. New York: W. W. Norton, 2016.

Bowen, Zachary. “The Flint Water Crisis: A Narrative with Administrative Recommendations.” Concept 40 (2017).

Boyer, Richard, and Herbert M. Morais. Labor’s Untold Story. Pittsburgh, PA: United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America, 1955.

Boyte, Harry. The Backyard Revolution: Understanding the New Citizen Movement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981.

Bravender, Marlena, and Caryl Walling. “Man-made Disaster Undermines Impoverished School District: The Flint Water Crisis.” eJournal of Education Policy (Spring 2017).

Brecher, Jeremy. Strike! Boston: South End Press, 1972.

Breines, Wini. Community and Organization in the New Left, 1962–1968: The Great Refusal. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989.

Brewer, James. “Michigan Blames Flint Water Crisis on Racism, Parts One and Two.” World Socialist website, March 3 and 4, 2017, accessed September 3, 2018.

Bridge Magazine Staff. “Disaster Day by Day: A Detailed Flint Crisis Timeline.” Bridge Magazine, February 4, 2016.

Brown, Mark B. Science in Democracy: Expertise, Institutions, and Representation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009.

Brown, Phil. “Popular Epidemiology and Toxic Waste Contamination: Lay and Professional Ways of Knowing.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 33 (September 1992): 267–281.

Brown, Phil. Toxic Exposures: Contested Illnesses and the Environmental Health Movement. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

Brown, Phil, and Faith I. T. Ferguson. “‘Making a Big Stink’: Women’s Work, Women’s Relationships, and Toxic Waste Activism.” Gender and Society 9, no. 2 (April 1995): 145–172.

Brown, Phil, and Edwin J. Mikkelsen. No Safe Place: Toxic Waste, Leukemia, and Community Action. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Brown, Phil, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Stephen Zavestoski, and the Contested Illnesses Research Group, eds. Contested Illnesses: Citizens, Science, and Health Social Movements. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.

Brown, Wendy. Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism’s Stealth Revolution. New York: Zone Books, 2015.

Bryant, Bunyan, and Paul Mohai, eds. Race and the Incidence of Environmental Hazards: A Time for Discourse. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1992.

Brulle, Robert J., and David N. Pellow. “Environmental Justice: Human Health and Environmental Inequalities.” Annual Review of Public Health 27 (2006): 103–124.

Buford, Talia, and Kristen Lombardi. “Steel Mill That Never Was ‘Casts a Shadow’ on EPA Office of Civil Rights.” The Center for Public Integrity, January 5, 2016.

Bullard, Robert D., ed. Confronting Environmental Racism: Voices from the Grassroots. Boston: South End Press, 1993.

Bullard, Robert D. Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.

Bullard, Robert D., and Glenn S. Johnson. “Environmental Justice: Grassroots Activism and Its Impact on Public Policy Decision Making.” Journal of Social Issues 56, no. 3 (Fall 2000): 555–578.

Burawoy, Michael. “The Extended Case Method.” Sociological Theory 16, no. 1 (March 1998): 4–33.

Burke, Katie L. “Flint Water Crisis Yields Hard Lessons in Science and Ethics.” American Scientist 104, no. 3 (May/June 2016): 134–136.

Burke, Katie L. “Moving Forward after Flint.” American Scientist 104, no. 3 (May/June 2016): 137–139.

Butler, Lindsey J., Madeleine K. Scammell, and Eugene B. Benson. “The Flint, Michigan, Water Crisis: A Case Study in Regulatory Failure and Environmental Injustice.” Environmental Justice 9, no. 4 (August 2016): 93–97.

Butts, Rachel, and Stephen Gasteyer. “More Cost per Drop: Water Rates, Structural Inequality, and Race in the United States—The Case of Michigan.” Environmental Practice 13, no. 4 (December 2011): 386–395.

Byrne, Brenda G., Sarah McColm, Shawn P. McElmurry, Paul E. Kilgore, Joanne Sobeck, Rick Sadler, Nancy G. Love, and Michele S. Swanson. “Prevalence of Infection-Competent Serogroup 6 Legionella pneumophila within Premise Plumbing in Southeast Michigan.” mBio 9, no. 1 (January/February 2018): 1–17.

Byrnes, Annie. “Amid the Flint Water Crisis, Journalists Are Calling for Changes to Michigan’s FOIA Law.” Poynter, February 2, 2016.

Cable, Sherry, Tamara Mix, and Donald Hasting. “Mission Impossible? Environmental Justice Movement Collaboration with Professional Environmentalists and with Academics.” In Power, Justice, and the Environment: A Critical Appraisal of the Environmental Justice Movement, edited by David Naguib Pellow and Robert J. Brulle, 55–76. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.

Callon, Michel, Pierre Lascoumes, and Yannick Barthe. Acting in an Uncertain World: An Essay on Technical Democracy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009.

Campbell, Andrew Morton, Mona Hanna-Attisha, and Jenny LaChance. “Flint Blood Lead Levels: Four Questions.” American Journal of Public Health 106, no. 12 (December 2016): e6–e7.

Campbell, Bob, ed. Poison on Tap: How Government Failed Flint, and the Heroes Who Fought Back. Traverse City, MI: Mission Point Press, 2016.

Campbell, Carla, Rachael Greenberg, Deepa Mankikar, and Ronald D. Ross. “A Case Study of Environmental Injustice: The Failure in Flint.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13, no. 10 (2016):

Carpenter, Zoë. “How the EPA Has Failed to Challenge Environmental Racism in Flint—and Beyond.” The Nation, January 28, 2016.

Carravallah, Laura A., Lawrence A. Reynolds, and Susan J. Woolford. “Lessons for Physicians from Flint’s Water Crisis.” AMA Journal of Ethics 19, no. 10 (October 2017): 1001–1010.

Carotta, Christin L., Amy E. Bonomi, Karleigh Knox, Morgan C. Blain, and Brianna F. Dines. “Flint’s Children: Narratives on Hope.” Qualitative Report 22, no. 9 (September 2017): 2437–2453.

Cavalier, Darlene, and Eric B. Kennedy, eds. The Rightful Place of Science: Citizen Science. Tempe, AZ: Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes, 2016.

Ceaser, Donovon. “Significant Life Experiences and Environmental Justice: Positionality and the Significance of Negative Social/Environmental Experiences.” Environmental Education Research 21, no. 2 (2015): 205–220.

Center for Michigan. Fractured Trust: Lost Faith in State Government, and How to Restore It. March 2017.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) after the Flint Water Crisis: May 17−19, 2016. July 2016.

Chambers, Edward. Roots for Radicals: Organizing for Power, Action, and Justice. New York: Continuum, 2003.

Chariton, Jordan. “EXCLUSIVE: Flint Water Declared ‘Restored’ after Michigan’s Environmental Agency Broke EPA Testing Regulations.” Medium, November 1, 2018,

Chariton, Jordan. “Fraudulence in Flint: How Suspect Science Helped Declare the Water Crisis Over.” Truthdig, May 27, 2018.

Chaskin, Robert J. “Building Community Capacity: A Definitional Framework and Case Studies from a Comprehensive Community Initiative.” Urban Affairs Review 36, no. 3 (January 2001): 291–323.

Chavez, Manuel, Marta Perez, Carin Tunney, and Silvia Núñez. “Accountability and Transparency Diluted in the Flint Water Crisis: A Case of Institutional Implosion.” Norteamérica 12, no. 1 (January–June 2017): 11–52.

Checker, Melissa. Polluted Promises: Environmental Racism and the Search for Justice in a Southern Town. New York: New York University Press, 2005.

Christensen, Peter, David Andrew Keiser, and Gabriel E. Lade. “The Effects of Information Provision on Housing Markets and Avoidance Behavior: Evidence from the Flint, MI Drinking Water Crisis.” Iowa State University, 2017.

Clark, Anna. “The City That Unpoisoned Its Pipes.” Next City, August 8, 2016.

Clark, Anna. “Flint Prepares to Be Left Behind Once More.” New Republic, March 3, 2016.

Clark, Anna. “A Guide to the 15 Powerful People Charged with Poisoning Flint.” Splinter, June 19, 2017.

Clark, Anna. “How the Flint Water Crisis and a Statehouse Scandal Gave a Boost to FOIA Reform in Michigan.” Columbia Journalism Review, June 21, 2016.

Clark, Anna. The Poisoned City: Flint’s Water and the American Urban Tragedy. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2018.

Clark, Anna. “The Struggle for Accountability in Flint.” Boston Review, February 2, 2016.

Clark, Anna. “Will Anyone Be Held at Fault over Flint?” CityLab, August 29, 2018.

Clark, Anna, and Josh Kramer. “‘An Equal Opportunity Lie’: How Housing Discrimination Led to the Flint Water Crisis.” Splinter, December 5, 2017.

Clark, Karen. “The Value of Water: The Flint Water Crisis as a Devaluation of Natural Resources, Not a Matter of Racial Justice.” Environmental Justice 9, no. 4 (2016): 99–102.

Clinton, Hillary. What Happened. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2017.

Cnaan, Ram A. “Neighborhood-representing Organizations: How Democratic Are They?” Social Service Review 65, no. 4 (1991): 614–634.

Coalition for Clean Water. “Coalition for Clean Water: Flint Is Not in the Clear.” People’s Tribune, June 2015.

Code, Lorraine. What Can She Know?: Feminist Theory and the Construction of Knowledge. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Cole, Luke, and Sheila Foster. From the Ground Up: Environmental Racism and the Rise of the Environmental Justice Movement. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

Colton, Roger. Memo to City of Flint on Water Affordability. April 24, 2015.

Community Foundation of Greater Flint and Michigan State University, Department of Community Sustainability and Office of Outreach and Engagement. Voices of Flint Project: Research Summary. Flint Resident Perceptions about the Causes, Consequences, and Solutions to the Flint Water Crisis. December 9, 2016.

Conde, Marta. “Activism Mobilising Science.” Ecological Economics 105 (September 2014): 67–77.

Conway, Kyle J. “There’s Something in the Water: How Apathetic State Officials Let the People of Flint, Michigan Down.” Villanova Environmental Law Journal 29, no. 1 (2018): 57–80.

Cooper, Caren. Citizen Science: How Ordinary People Are Changing the Face of Discovery. New York: Overlook Press, 2016.

Cooper, Caren B., and Bruce V. Lewenstein, “Two Meanings of Citizen Science.” In The Rightful Place of Science: Citizen Science, edited by Darlene Cavalier and Eric B. Kennedy. Tempe, AZ: Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes, 2016.

Corburn, Jason. Street Science: Community Knowledge and Environmental Health Justice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.

Cornwell, David A., Richard A. Brown, and Steve H. Via. “National Survey of Lead Service Line Occurrence.” Journal—American Water Works Association 108, no. 4 (April 2016): e182–e191.

Counts, John. “Flint Water Crisis Got Its Start as a Money-Saving Move in Department of Treasury.” MLive, May 3, 2016.

Counts, John. “How Government Poisoned the People of Flint.” MLive, January 21, 2016.

Coyne, Connor. “Flint, Michigan’s Water Crisis: What the National Media Got Wrong.” Vox, January 20, 2016.

Coyne, Connor. “The Flint Water Crisis Is Not Over.” Vox, December 21, 2016.

Coyne, Connor. “I Live in Flint. All the Justice in the World Won’t Undo the Damage Done Here.” Vox, June 15, 2017.

Craft-Blacksheare, Melva Gale. “Lessons Learned from the Crisis in Flint, Michigan Regarding the Effects of Contaminated Water on Maternal and Child Health.” JOGNN 46, no. 2 (March/April 2017): 258–266.

Craven, Julia, and Tyler Tynes. “The Racist Roots of Flint’s Water Crisis.” Huffington Post, February 3, 2016.

Crosby, Andrew, and Donijo Robbins. “Mission Impossible: Monitoring Municipal Fiscal Sustainability and Stress in Michigan.” Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting, and Financial Management 25, no. 3 (Fall 2013): 522–555.

Culler, Jonathan. The Pursuit of Signs: Semiotics, Literature, Deconstruction. London: Routledge, 1981.

Cuthbertson, Courtney A., Cathy Newkirk, Joan Ilardo, Scott Loveridge, and Mark Skidmore. “Angry, Scared, and Unsure: Mental Health Consequences of Contaminated Water in Flint, Michigan.” Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 93, no. 6 (2016): 899–908.

Daisy, Michael, ed. Detroit Water and Sewerage Department: The First 300 Years. Detroit: City of Detroit, 2002.

Dalsgaard, Steffen. “The Ethnographic Use of Facebook in Everyday Life.” Anthropological Forum 26, no. 1 (2016): 96–114.

Dana, David A. “Escaping the Abdication Trap When Cooperative Federalism Fails: Legal Reform after Flint.” Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law and Legal Theory Series, no. 17–08 (March 2017): 1–36.

Dana, David A., and Deborah Tuerkheimer. “After Flint: Environmental Justice as Equal Protection.” Northwestern University Law Review 111, no. 3 (2017): 879–890.

Dandaneau, Steven P. A Town Abandoned: Flint, Michigan, Confronts Deindustrialization. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996.

Davis, Joseph E., ed. Stories of Change: Narrative and Social Movements. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002.

Davis, Katrinell M. “False Assurances: The Effects of Corrosive Drinking Water and Noncompliance with Lead Control Policies in Flint, Michigan.” Environmental Justice 9, no. 4 (August 2016): 103–108.

Dawsey, Chastity Pratt. “Soaring Pneumonia Deaths in Genesee County Likely Linked to Undiagnosed Legionnaires’, Experts Say.” Bridge Magazine, January 26, 2017.

Dawson, Emily L. “Lessons Learned from Flint, Michigan: Managing Multiple Source Pollution in Urban Communities.” William and Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review 26, no. 2 (2001): 367–405.

Delaney, Arthur. “Mark Ruffalo’s Water Nonprofit Has Allied Itself with an Opportunistic Sponge Salesman.” Huffington Post, May 23, 2016.

Dellapenna, Joseph W. “The Water Crisis in Flint, Michigan: Profitability, Cost-Effectiveness, and Depriving People of Water.” In The Role of Integrity in the Governance of the Commons, edited by Laura Westra, Janice Gray, and Franz-Theo Gottwald, 91–104. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017.

Democracy Now! “On World Water Day, See Our Extended Interview with Flint Activists Nayyirah Shariff & Melissa Mays.” March 22, 2016.

Dennis, Brady. “The EPA’s Lead-in-Water Rule Has Been Faulted for Decades. Will Flint Hasten a Change?” Washington Post, May 5, 2016.

Dettloff, Dean, and Matt Bernico. “Atmoterrorism and Atmodesign in the 21st Century, Mediating Flint’s Water Crisis.” Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 13, no. 1 (2017): 156–189.

Dietz, Mary G. “Citizenship with a Feminist Face: The Problem with Maternal Thinking.” Political Theory 13, no. 1 (February 1985): 19–37.

Doan, Michael D. “Epistemic Injustice and Epistemic Redlining.” Ethics and Social Welfare 11, no. 2 (February 2017): 177–190.

Dodge, Jennifer. “Environmental Justice and Deliberative Democracy: How Social Change Organizations Respond to Power in the Deliberative System.” Policy and Society 28, no. 3 (2009): 225–239.

Doidge, Mary, Eric Scorsone, Traci Taylor, Josh Sapotichne, Erika Rosebrook, and Danielle Kaminski. “The Flint Fiscal Playbook: An Assessment of the Emergency Manager Years (2011–2015).” MSU Extension White Paper, July 31, 2015.

Dorka, Lilian. EPA Final Genesee Complaint Letter to Director Grether. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency, 2017.

Dorya, Gabriela, Z. Qiu, C. Qiu, M. R. Fu, and C. E. Ryan. “Lived Experiences of Reducing Environmental Risks in an Environmental Justice Community.” Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 5, no. 4 (2015): 128–141.

Dorya, Gabriela, Z. M. Qiu, C. Qiu, M. R. Fu, and C. E. Ryan. “A Phenomenological Understanding of Residents’ Emotional Distress of Living in an Environmental Justice Community.” International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being 12, no. 1 (2017): 1–10.

Douglas, Mary. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concept of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge, 2002.

Douglas, Mary, and Aaron Wildavsky. Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technological and Environmental Dangers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.

Drum, Kevin. “In Flint, We Are Laying Tragedy on Top of Tragedy on Top of Tragedy.” Mother Jones, January 26, 2017.

Drum, Kevin. “Lead Did Not Turn Flint Children into Idiots. Stop Saying So.” Mother Jones, February 9, 2018.

Drum, Kevin. “The Water in Flint Is Now Better than Bottled Water.” Mother Jones, November 21, 2016.

Dryzek, John. “Democratization as Deliberative Capacity Building.” Comparative Political Studies 42, no. 11 (April 2009): 1379–1402.

Duntley-Matos, Roxanna, Victoria Arteaga, Angel García, Rafael Arellano, Roberto Garza, and Robert M. Ortega. “‘We Always Say: And Then Came the Water …’ Flint’s Emergent Latinx Capacity Building Journey during the Government-Induced Lead Crisis.” Journal of Community Practice 25, nos. 3-4 (2017): 365-390.

Edelstein, Michael R. Contaminated Communities: Coping with Residential Toxic Exposure. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2004.

Edwards, Marc A. “Failure of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to Protect Children from Elevated Lead in Drinking Water: 2001–Present.” Virginia Tech, March 15, 2016,

Edwards, Marc A. “Fetal Death and Reduced Birth Rates Associated with Exposure to Lead-Contaminated Drinking Water.” Environmental Science and Technology 48, no. 1 (2014): 739–746.

Edwards, Marc A. “Foreword.” In Science for Sale: How the US Government Uses Powerful Corporations and Leading Universities to Support Government Policies, Silence Top Scientists, Jeopardize Our Health, and Protect Corporate Profits, by David L. Lewis, ix–xiii. New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2014.

Edwards, Marc A. “Institutional Scientific Misconduct at U.S. Public Health Agencies: How Malevolent Government Betrayed Flint, MI.” Written statement to United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, February 3, 2016.

Edwards, Marc A., and Amy Pruden. “The Flint Water Crisis: Overturning the Research Paradigm to Advance Science and Defend Public Welfare.” Environmental Science and Technology 50 (2016): 8935–8936.

Edwards, Marc A., and Amy Pruden. “We Helped Flint Residents Save Themselves and Are Proud of It—Staying in Our Ivory Tower Would Have Perpetuated Injustice.” Environmental Science and Technology 50 (2016): 12057.

Edwards, Marc A., and Siddhartha Roy. “Academic Research in the 21st Century: Maintaining Scientific Integrity in a Climate of Perverse Incentives and Hypercompetition.” Environmental Engineering Science 34, no. 1 (January 2017): 51–61.

Edwards, Marc A., Simoni Triantafyllidou, and Dana Best. “Elevated Blood Lead in Young Children Due to Lead-Contaminated Drinking Water: Washington, DC, 2001–2004.” Environmental Science and Technology 43, no. 5 (March 2009): 1618–1623.

Eligon, John. “A Question of Environmental Racism in Flint.” The New York Times, January 21, 2016.

Eng, Bernie. “Editorial: After One Year, Flint Still Needs Emergency Financial Manager.” MLive, December 1, 2012.

Environmental Justice Work Group. “Environmental Justice Work Group Report: Michigan as a Global Leader in Environmental Justice.” March 2018.

Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Equity: Reducing Risks for All Communities. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency, 1992.

Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General. Drinking Water Contamination in Flint, Michigan, Demonstrates a Need to Clarify EPA Authority to Issue Emergency Orders to Protect the Public. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency, 2016.

Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water. Lead and Copper Rule Revisions White Paper. October 2016.

Epstein, Steven. Impure Science: AIDS, Activism, and the Politics of Knowledge. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Erikson, Kai. Everything in Its Path: Destruction of Community in the Buffalo Creek Flood. New York: Touchstone, 1976.

Escobar, Arturo. “Culture, Practice and Politics: Anthropology and the Study of Social Movements.” Critique of Anthropology 12 (1992): 395–432.

Evans, Sara M., and Harry C. Boyte. Free Spaces: The Sources of Democratic Change in America. New York: Perennial Library, 1986.

Faber, Daniel R., and Deborah McCarthy. “Breaking the Funding Barriers: Philanthropic Activism in Support of the Environmental Justice Movement.” In Foundations for Social Change: Critical Perspectives on Philanthropy and Popular Movements, edited by Daniel Faber, Deborah McCarthy, and Deborah McCarthy Auriffeille, 175–210. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005.

Fagin, Dan. Toms River: A Story of Science and Salvation. New York: Bantam Books, 2013.

Farmer, Paul. Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

Fasenfest, David. “A Neoliberal Response to an Urban Crisis: Emergency Management in Flint, MI.” Critical Sociology (August 2017): 1–15.

Fasenfest, David, and Theodore Pride. “Emergency Management in Michigan: Race, Class and the Limits of Liberal Democracy.” Critical Sociology 42, no. 3 (2016): 331–334.

Faust, Kasey M., Dulcy M. Abraham, and Shawn P. McElmurry. “Water and Wastewater Infrastructure Management in Shrinking Cities.” Public Works Management and Policy 21, no. 2 (2015): 128–156.

Faust, Kasey M., Fred L. Mannering, and Dulcy M. Abraham. “Statistical Analysis of Public Perceptions of Water Infrastructure Sustainability in Shrinking Cities.” Urban Water Journal 13, no. 6 (2016): 618–628.

Fewell, Brent. “The Failure of Cooperative Federalism in Flint.” Journal—American Water Works Association 108, no. 3 (March 2016): 12–14.

Fine, Sidney. Sit-Down: The General Motors Strike of 1936–1937. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1969.

Finewood, Michael H., and Ryan Holifield. “Critical Approaches to Urban Water Governance: From Critique to Justice, Democracy, and Transdisciplinary Collaboration.” WIREs Water 2, no. 2 (March/April 2015): 85–96.

Fischer, Frank. Citizens, Experts, and the Environment: The Politics of Local Knowledge. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000.

Flinn, Gary. Hidden History of Flint. Stroud, UK: The History Press, 2017.

Flint Water Advisory Task Force. Final Report. Lansing, MI: Office of Governor Rick Snyder, March 2016.

Flyvbjerg, Bent. “Five Misunderstandings about Case-Study Research.” Qualitative Inquiry 12, no. 2 (April 2006): 219–245.

Food and Water Watch. “U.S. Water Systems Need Sustainable Funding.” Washington, D.C.: Food and Water Watch, May 2016.

Food and Water Watch. Water Injustice: Economic and Racial Disparities in Access to Safe and Clean Water in the United States. Washington, D.C.: Food and Water Watch, March 2017.

Ford, Harold C. “Dayne Walling and the Flint Water Crisis: Victim, Villain or Faithful Servant?” East Village Magazine, January 5, 2017.

Fortenberry, Gamola Z., Patricia Reynolds, Sherry L. Burrer, and Vicki Johnson-Lawrence. “Assessment of Behavioral Health Concerns in the Community Affected by the Flint Water Crisis—Michigan (USA) 2016.” Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 33, no. 3 (June 2018): 256–265.

Fortun, Kim. Advocacy after Bhopal. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2001.

Francher, Mark, et al. “Unelected and Unaccountable, Emergency Managers and Public Act 4’s Threat to Representative Democracy.” ACLU of Michigan (2012): 1–10.

Fraser, Nancy. “Rethinking Recognition.” New Left Review 3 (May/June 2000): 107–120.

Frerejohn, John, and Pasquale Pasquino. “The Law of the Exception: A Typology of Emergency Powers.” International Journal of Constitutional Law 2, no. 2 (April 2004): 210–239.

Fricker, Miranda. Epistemic Injustice: Power and the Ethics of Knowing. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Frug, Gerald E., and David J. Barron. City Bound: How States Stifle Urban Innovation. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2008.

Furlong, Kathryn. “Small Technologies, Big Change: Rethinking Infrastructure through STS and Geography.” Progress in Human Geography 35, no. 4 (August 2011): 460–482.

Gable, Lance, and James W. Buehler. “Criticized, Fired, Sued, or Prosecuted: Hindsight and Public Health Accountability.” Public Health Reports 132, no. 6 (2017): 676–678.

Ganz, Marshall. “What Is Public Narrative?” Chutzpah Portfolio. Accessed September 2, 2018.

Ganz, Marshall. Why David Sometimes Wins: Leadership, Organization, and Strategy in the California Farm Worker Movement. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

General Accounting Office. Siting of Hazardous Waste Landfills and Their Correlation with Racial and Economic Status of Surrounding Communities. June 1, 1983.

Gerring, John. “What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for?” American Political Science Review 98, no. 2 (May 2004): 341–354.

Gewin, Virginia. “Turning Point: Activist Engineer.” Nature 537 (September 2016): 439.

Gibbs, Lois. “Citizen Activism for Environmental Health: The Growth of a Powerful New Grassroots Health Movement.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 584, no. 1 (November 2002): 97–109.

Gibbs, Lois. Love Canal and the Birth of the Environmental Health Movement. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2011.

Gieryn, Thomas F. “Boundary-Work and the Demarcation of Science from Non-Science: Strains and Interests in Professional Ideologies of Scientists.” American Sociological Review 48, no. 6 (December 1983): 781–795.

Gillette, Clayton P. “Dictatorships for Democracy: Takeovers of Financially Failed Cities.” New York University Law and Economics Working Paper 369, New York University School of Law, March 2014.

Gillette, Clayton P. “Fiscal Federalism, Political Will, and Strategic Use of Municipal Bankruptcy.” University of Chicago Law Review 79, no. 1 (Winter 2012): 281–330.

Giroux, Henry A. America at War with Itself. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 2017.

Glover, Gale. Flint: The Death and Rebirth of a City: Unmasking the Flint Water Crisis. Flint, MI: Glover Publishing and Community Outsourcing, 2018.

Goffman, Alice. On the Run: Fugitive Life in an American City. New York: Picador, 2014.

Gómez, Hernán, and Kim Dietrich. “The Children of Flint Were Not ‘Poisoned.’” New York Times, July 22, 2018.

Gómez, Hernán F., Dominic A. Borgialli, Mahesh Sharman, Keneil K. Shah, Anthony J. Scolpino, James M. Oleske, and John D. Bogden. “Blood Lead Levels of Children in Flint, Michigan: 2006–2016.” Journal of Pediatrics 197 (June 2018): 158–164.

Goovaerts, Pierre. “The Drinking Water Contamination Crisis in Flint: Modeling Temporal Trends of Lead Level since Returning to Detroit Water System.” Science of the Total Environment 581–582 (2017): 66–79.

Goovaerts, Pierre. “How Geostatistics Can Help You Find Lead and Galvanized Water Service Lines: The Case of Flint, MI.” Science of the Total Environment 599–600 (December 2017): 1552–1563.

Goovaerts, Pierre. “Monitoring the Aftermath of Flint Drinking Water Contamination Crisis: Another Case of Sampling Bias?” Science of the Total Environment 590–591 (2017): 139–153.

Gordin, Michael D. The Pseudoscience Wars: Immanuel Velikovsky and the Birth of the Modern Fringe. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012.

Gosman, Sara R. Written Testimony Submitted to the Michigan Civil Rights Commission. September 8, 2016.

Gottesdiener, Laura. “A Magical Mystery Tour of American Austerity Politics.” The Huffington Post, June 9, 2015.

Gottlieb, Robert. Environmentalism Unbound: Exploring New Pathways for Change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001.

Gottlieb, Robert. Forcing the Spring: The Transformation of the American Environmental Movement. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2005.

Gottlieb, Robert. A Life of Its Own: The Politics and Power of Water. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1988.

Graeber, David. Possibilities: Essays on Hierarchy, Rebellion and Desire. Oakland, CA: AK Press, 2007.

Graham, Stephen, ed. Disrupted Cities: When Infrastructure Fails. New York: Routledge, 2010.

Gray, Steven, Alison Singer, Laura Schmitt-Olabisi, Josh Introne, and Jane Henderson. “Identifying the Causes, Consequences, and Solutions to the Flint Water Crisis through Collaborative Modeling.” Environmental Justice 10, no. 5 (September 2017): 154–161.

Green, Dennis L. “Detroit’s Water System and the Roots of the Flint Water Crisis.” Eclectablog, April 25, 2017.

Grimmer, Chelsea. “Racial Microbiopolitics: Flint Lead Poisoning, Detroit Water Shut Offs, and the ‘Matter’ of Enfleshment.” The Comparatist 41 (October 2017): 19-40.

Groden, Claire. “How Michigan’s Bureaucrats Created the Flint Water Crisis.” Fortune, January 20, 2016.

Grossman, Daniel S., and David J. G. Slusky. “The Effect of an Increase in Lead in the Water System on Fertility and Birth Outcomes: The Case of Flint, Michigan.” West Virginia University, Department of Economics Working Papers Series, no. 17–25 (August 2017): 1–63.

Grossman, Daniel S., and David J. G. Slusky. “The Impact of the Flint Water Crisis on Fertility.” June 10, 2018.

Guyette, Curt. “An ACLU of Michigan Investigation Has Found a Stream of Irregularities in Flint’s Water Tests.” Detroit Metro Times, September 16, 2015.

Guyette, Curt. “Are Flint’s Lead Problems Just Incompetence or Something Worse?” Detroit Metro Times, October 28, 2015.

Guyette, Curt. “As the Flint Water Crisis Fades from the Headlines, the State of Michigan Has an Enduring Responsibility to the City’s School Children.” ACLU of Michigan, October 18, 2016.

Guyette, Curt. “Charges against Emergency Managers Underscore Shortsightedness That Created Flint Water Crisis.” Detroit Metro Times, December 21, 2016.

Guyette, Curt. “Continued Probes Crucial in the Wake of Flint Water Testimony.” ACLU of Michigan, March 21, 2016.

Guyette, Curt. “Corrosive Impact: A Tale of Leaded Water and One Flint Family’s Toxic Nightmare.” ACLU of Michigan, July 9, 2015.

Guyette, Curt. “The Culprits in Flint’s Water Scandal Need to Be Held Accountable.” ACLU of Michigan, October 9, 2015.

Guyette, Curt. “Dangerous Water and Lost Trust in Flint: Why the Feds Need to Step In.” ACLU of Michigan, October 6, 2015.

Guyette, Curt. “A Deep Dive into the Source of Flint’s Water Crisis: Tunnel Vision.” Detroit Metro Times, April 19, 2017.

Guyette, Curt. “Democracy Watch: Flint Residents Ask EPA to Change Drinking Water Rule.” ACLU of Michigan, November 19, 2015.

Guyette, Curt. “Exclusive: Gov. Rick Snyder’s Men Originally Rejected Using Flint’s Toxic River.” Daily Beast, January 24, 2016.

Guyette, Curt. “Filtering Democracy: Receivership Board Decision Reminder That Elected Officials Still Lack Full Power in Flint.” ACLU of Michigan, July 5, 2017.

Guyette, Curt. “Flint Residents Deserve Unfiltered Truth.” Detroit Metro Times, January 17, 2017.

Guyette, Curt. “Flint Schools: Dealing with the Damage Done.” Detroit Metro Times, October 18, 2016.

Guyette, Curt. “The Flint Water Crisis Isn’t Over.” ACLU of Michigan, April 25, 2018.

Guyette, Curt. “Flint’s State of Emergency Is a Sign That Democracy Is Working There Again.” Guardian, December 16, 2015.

Guyette, Curt. “Four Questions Gov. Snyder Must Answer during Congressional Testimony.” ACLU of Michigan, March 14, 2016.

Guyette, Curt. “Independent Water Tests Show Lead Problems Far Worse than Flint Claims.” Detroit Metro Times, September 1, 2015.

Guyette, Curt. “In Flint, Michigan, Overpriced Water Is Causing People’s Skin to Erupt in Rashes and Hair to Fall Out.” The Nation, July 16, 2015.

Guyette, Curt. “Lead Astray: ACLU of Michigan Investigation Has Found Irregularities in Flint’s Water Tests.” ACLU of Michigan, September 15, 2017.

Guyette, Curt. “More Evidence of Flint’s Water Problems Found in Study of Children’s Blood.” Detroit Metro Times, September 24, 2015.

Guyette, Curt. “One Year Later, Flint’s Water Still Unsafe to Drink.” Detroit Metro Times, September 15, 2016.

Guyette, Curt. “Overpriced Water in Flint Is Causing Rashes, Hair Loss.” ACLU of Michigan, July 16, 2015.

Guyette, Curt. “Power of the People.” Detroit Metro Times, February 24, 2016.

Guyette, Curt. “Report: EPA Fails to Deliver Environmental Justice in Flint and Elsewhere.” Detroit Metro Times, October 4, 2016.

Guyette, Curt. “Researcher: State Tried to Cover up Child Lead Poisoning in Flint following Switch to River Water.” ACLU of Michigan, December 21, 2015.

Guyette, Curt. “Revised EPA Memo Raises Troubling Questions amid Flint Water Crisis.” ACLU of Michigan, November 11, 2015.

Guyette, Curt. “Second Anniversary of Switch to Flint River Sees Too Little Progress in Ending Water Crisis.” ACLU of Michigan, April 25, 2016.

Guyette, Curt. “Why Strict Federal Oversight Is Needed to Safeguard Flint’s Water.” Detroit Metro Times, October 5, 2015.

Hamdy, Sherinef. “When the State and Your Kidneys Fail: Political Etiologies in an Egyptian Dialysis Ward.” American Ethnologist 35, no. 4 (November 2008): 553–569.

Hamilton, Lawrence C. “Concern about Toxic Wastes: Three Demographic Predictors.” Sociological Perspectives 28, no. 4 (October 1985): 463–486.

Hammer, Peter J. “The Flint Water Crisis, the Karegnondi Water Authority and Strategic–Structural Racism.” Critical Sociology (2017).

Hammer, Peter J. “The Flint Water Crisis, KWA and Strategic-Structural Racism.” Written Testimony Submitted to the Michigan Civil Rights Commission. July 18, 2016.

Hammer, Peter J. “The Flint Water Crisis, KWA and Strategic-Structural Racism: A Reply to Jeff Wright, Genesee County Drain Commissioner and CEO of Karegnondi Water Authority.” Written Testimony Submitted to the Michigan Civil Rights Commission. December 31, 2016.

Han, Hahrie. How Organizations Develop Activists: Civic Associations and Leadership in the 21st Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Hanna-Attisha, Mona. “Don’t Downplay Lead Problems, or Solutions, for Kids in Flint Water Crisis.” Detroit Free Press, March 28, 2018.

Hanna-Attisha, Mona. “Flint Kids: Tragic, Resilient, and Exemplary.” American Journal of Public Health 107, no. 5 (May 2017): 651–652.

Hanna-Attisha, Mona. “The Future for Flint’s Children.” New York Times, March 26, 2016.

Hanna-Attisha, Mona. What the Eyes Don’t See: A Story of Crisis, Resistance, and Hope in an American City. New York: One World, 2018.

Hanna-Attisha, Mona, Jenny LaChance, Richard Casey Sadler, and Allison Champney Schnepp. “Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children Associated with the Flint Drinking Water Crisis: A Spatial Analysis of Risk and Public Health Response.” American Journal of Public Health 106, no. 2 (February 2016): 283–290.

Hansen, Jason K. “Community Water System Regionalization and Stakeholder Implications: Estimating Effects to Consumers and Purveyors.” Working Paper, Calhoun Institutional Archive of the Naval Postgraduate School, Naval Post Graduate School, Monterey, CA, 2011.

Harding, Sandra. “Rethinking Standpoint Epistemology: What Is ‘Strong Objectivity’?” In Feminist Epistemologies, edited by Linda Alcoff and Elizabeth Potter, 49–82. London: Routledge, 1993.

Hardwig, John. “The Role of Trust in Knowledge.” Journal of Philosophy 88, no. 12 (December 1991): 693–708.

Harper, Heather. “Local Financial Crisis and the Democratic Process: A Case Study of Michigan’s Emergency Manager Law.” Master’s thesis, California State University, Northridge, 2014.

Harr, Jonathan. A Civil Action. New York: Random House, 1995.

Harrington, Cameron. “The Political Ontology of Collaborative Water Governance.” Water International 42, no. 3 (2017): 254–270.

Harvey, David. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Harvey, David. “Militant Particularism and Global Ambition: The Conceptual Politics of Place, Space and Environment in the Work of Raymond Williams.” Social Text, no. 42 (Spring 1995): 69–98.

Harvey, David. Spaces of Hope. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000.

Harvey, Penny, and Hannah Knox. Roads: An Anthropology of Infrastructure and Expertise. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2015.

Healy, Colleen, and Jennifer Bernstein. “Legal and Policy Interventions to Address Developmental and Mental Health Impacts of the Flint Water Crisis.” Environmental Justice 9, no. 6 (December 2016): 167–175.

Heard-Garris, Nia Jeneé, Jessica Roche, Patrick Carter, Mahshid Abir, Maureen Walton, Marc Zimmerman, and Rebecca Cunningham. “Voices from Flint: Community Perceptions of the Flint Water Crisis.” Journal of Urban Health 94, no. 6 (December 2017): 776–779.

Hess, David J. Undone Science: Social Movements, Mobilized Publics, and Industrial Transitions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2016.

Highsmith, Andrew R. Demolition Means Progress: Flint, Michigan, and the Fate of the American Metropolis. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2015.

Highsmith, Andrew R. “Flint’s Toxic Water Crisis Was 50 Years in the Making.” Los Angeles Times, January 29, 2016.

Hill, Marc Lamont. Nobody: Casualties of America’s War on the Vulnerable, from Ferguson to Flint and Beyond. New York: Atria Books, 2016.

Hohman, James M. “Proposal 1 of 2012: The Referendum on Public Act 4.” Midland, MI: Mackinac Center for Public Policy, October 22, 2012.

Hohn, Donovan. “Flint’s Water Crisis and the ‘Troublemaker’ Scientist.” The New York Times Magazine, August 16, 2016.

Holeywell, Ryan. “Emergency Financial Managers: Michigan’s Unwelcome Savior.” Governing, May 2012.

Holifield, Ryan, Jayajit Chakraborty, and Gordon Walker, eds. The Routledge Handbook of Environmental Justice. New York: Routledge, 2017.

Hollander, Justin B. “Moving toward a Shrinking Cities Metric: Analyzing Land Use Changes Associated with Depopulation in Flint, Michigan.” Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research 12, no. 1 (2010): 133–151.

Hollander, Justin B. Sunburnt Cities: The Great Recession, Depopulation and Urban Planning in the American Sunbelt. Milton Park, UK: Routledge, 2011.

Home-Douglas, Pierre. “The Water Guy.” Prism 14, no. 3 (November 2004).

Honig, Bonnie. Emergency Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.

Honneth, Axel. The Struggle for Recognition: The Moral Grammar of Social Conflicts. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995.

Hoogesteger, Jaime. “Democratizing Water Governance from the Grassroots: The Development of Interjuntas-Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes.” Human Organization 71, no. 1 (2012): 76–86.

House Judiciary Committee Democratic Staff. “Democracy for Sale: Subverting Voting Rights, Collective Bargaining and Accountability under Michigan’s Emergency Manager Law: Interim Report and Recommendations.” February 2012.

Howell, Sharon, Michael D. Doan, and Ami Harbin. “Detroit to Flint and Back Again: Solidarity Forever.” Critical Sociology, no. 43 (2017): 1–21.

Hughes, Thomas P. “The Evolution of Large Technical Systems.” In The Social Construction of Technological Systems, edited by Wiebe E. Bijker, Thomas P. Hughes, and Trevor J. Pinch, 51–82. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987.

Hurley, Andrew. Environmental Inequalities: Class, Race, and Industrial Pollution in Gary, Indiana, 1945–1980. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

INCITE! Women of Color against Violence. The Revolution Will Not Be Funded: Beyond the Non-Profit Industrial Complex. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2017.

Inwood, Joshua F. J. “‘It Is the Innocence Which Constitutes the Crime’: Political Geographies of White Supremacy, the Construction of White Innocence, and the Flint Water Crisis.” Geography Compass 12 (2018): 1–11.

Irwin, Alan. Citizen Science: A Study of People, Expertise and Sustainable Development. London: Routledge, 1995.

Irwin, Jeff. An Action Plan for Flint. Michigan House of Representatives, December 2016.

Ivacko, Thomas, and Debra Horner. “Local Leaders More Likely to Support than Oppose Michigan’s Emergency Manager Law, but Strongly Favor Reforms.” Michigan Public Policy Survey, February 22, 2017.

Jackman, Michael. “Remember: Bill Schuette Is Indicting Emergency Managers, Not the EM Law.” Detroit Metro Times, December 20, 2016.

Jackson, Derrick Z. “Environmental Justice? Unjust Coverage of the Flint Water Crisis.” Boston Globe, July 11, 2017.

Jackson, Derrick Z. “The Goldman Prize Missed the Black Heroes of Flint—Just Like the Media Did.” Grist, April 23, 2018.

Jacobson, Peter D., Colleen Healy Boufides, Jennifer Bernstein, Denise Chrysler, and Toby Citrin. “Learning from the Flint Water Crisis: Protecting the Public’s Health during a Financial Emergency.” University of Michigan School of Public Health, January 2018.

Jacoby, Tami Amanda. “A Theory of Victimhood: Politics, Conflict and the Construction of Victim-Based Identity.” Millennium 43, no. 2 (2015): 511–530.

Jahng, Mi Rosie, and Namyeon Lee. “When Scientists Tweet for Social Changes: Dialogic Communication and Collective Mobilization Strategies by Flint Water Study Scientists on Twitter.” Science Communication 40, no. 1 (January 2018): 89–108.

Jasanoff, Sheila. Science and Public Reason. London: Routledge, 2012.

Jasanoff, Sheila, ed., States of Knowledge: The Co-Production of Science and Social Order. London: Routledge, 2004.

Jeffery, Laura, and Matei Candea. “The Politics of Victimhood.” History and Anthropology 17, no. 4 (December 2006): 287–296.

Johnston, Hank, and Bert Klandermans, eds. Social Movements and Culture. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1995.

Joint Select Committee on the Flint Water Public Health Emergency. Report of the Joint Select Committee on the Flint Water Emergency. October 2016.

Jones, Bryan D., and Lynn W. Bachelor. The Sustaining Hand: Community Leadership and Corporate Power. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1993.

Jones, James H. Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. New York: The Free Press, 1993.

Jordan, Laura. “Neoliberalism Writ Large and Small.” Anthropology Matters 15, no. 1 (2014): 17–62.

Joy, K. J., Seema Kulkarni, Dik Roth, and Margreet Zwarteveen. “Repoliticising Water Governance: Exploring Water Re-Allocations in Terms of Justice.” Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability 19, no. 9 (2014): 954–973.

Juris, Jeffrey S. “Practicing Militant Ethnography with the Movement for Global Resistance (MRG) in Barcelona.” In Constituent Imagination: Militant Investigations, Collective Theorization, edited by Stevphen Shukaitis and David Graeber, 164–176. Oakland, CA: AK Press, 2007.

Kaffer, Nancy. “It’s Time to Speak up about Racism in Flint Water Crisis.” Detroit Free Press, February 20, 2017.

Kaika, Maria. City of Flows. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Kain, Erik. “Teachers and Tea Partiers Unite to Repeal Michigan Emergency Manager Bill.” Forbes, April 6, 2011.

Katner, Adrienne L., Komal Brown, Kelsey Pieper, Marc Edwards, Yanna Lambrinidou, and Wilma Subra. “America’s Path to Drinking Water Infrastructure Inequality and Environmental Injustice: The Case of Flint, Michigan.” In The Palgrave Handbook of Sustainability: Case Studies and Practical Solutions, edited by Robert Brinkmann and Sandra J. Garren, 79–97. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.

Katner, Adrienne L., Kelsey J. Pieper, Yanna Lambrinidou, Komal Brown, Chih-Yang Hu, Howard W. Mielke, and Marc A. Edwards. “Weaknesses in Federal Drinking Water Regulations and Public Health Policies That Impede Lead Poisoning Prevention and Environmental Justice.” Environmental Justice 9, no. 4 (2016): 109–117.

Kennedy, Chinaro, Ellen Yard, Timothy Dignam, et al. “Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years—Flint, Michigan, 2013–2016.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 65, no. 25 (2016): 650–654.

Kennedy, Eric. “When Citizen Science Meets Science Policy.” In The Rightful Place of Science: Citizen Science, edited by Darlene Cavalier and Eric B. Kennedy, 21–50. Tempe, AZ: Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes, 2016.

Key, Kent. “Expanding Ethics Review Processes to Include Community-Level Protections: A Case Study from Flint, Michigan.” AMA Journal of Ethics 19, no. 10 (October 2017): 989–998.

Kibel, Paul Stanton, ed. Rivertown: Rethinking Urban Rivers. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007.

King, Shaun. “Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder Did Nothing as Flint’s Water Crisis Became One of the Worst Cases of Environmental Racism in Modern American History.” New York Daily News, January 11, 2016.

Kirkpatrick, L. Owen, and Nate Breznau. “The (Non)Politics of Emergency Political Intervention: The Racial Geography of Urban Crisis Management in Michigan.” SSRN, March 2016.

Kitcher, Philip. Science, Truth, and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Klein, Naomi. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. New York: Picador, 2007.

Kleinman, Arthur. The Illness Narratives: Suffering Healing, and the Human Condition. New York: Basic Books, 1988.

Klinenberg, Eric. Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2015.

Kolowich, Steve. “The Accidental Ethicist.” Chronicle of Higher Education, October 2, 2016.

Kolowich, Steve. “The Cost of His Crusade.” Chronicle of Higher Education, November 19, 2018.

Kolowich, Steve. “The Water Next Time: Professor Who Helped Expose Crisis in Flint Says Public Science Is Broken.” Chronicle of Higher Education, February 2, 2016.

Kornberg, Dana. “The Structural Origins of Territorial Stigma: Water and Racial Politics in Metropolitan Detroit, 1950s-2010s.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 40, no. 2 (March 2016): 263–283.

Kotlowitz, Alex. The Other Side of the River: A Story of Two Towns, a Death, and America’s Dilemma. New York: Anchor Books, 1999.

Kraus, Henry. The Many and the Few: A Chronicle of the Dynamic Auto Workers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1985.

Krings, Amy, Dana Kornberg, and Erin Lane. “Organizing under Austerity: How Residents’ Concerns Became the Flint Water Crisis.” Critical Sociology (2018): 1–15. Retrieved from Loyola eCommons, School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works.

Krsulich, Lora. “Polluted Politics.” California Law Review 105, no. 2 (April 2017): 501–538.

Kruger, Daniel J. “Facultative Adjustments in Future Planning Tendencies: Insights on Life History Plasticity from the Flint Water Crisis.” Evolutionary Psychological Science (2018): 1–12.

Kruger, Daniel J., Suzanne Cupal, Susan P. Franzen, Gergana Kodjebacheva, Elder Sarah Bailey, Kent D. Key, and Martin M. Kaufman. “Toxic Trauma: Household Water Quality Experiences Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms during the Flint, Michigan, Water Crisis.” Journal of Community Psychology 45, no. 7 (May 2017): 957–962.

Kruger, Daniel J., Suzanne Cupal, Gergana D. Kodjebacheva, and Thomas V. Fockler. “Perceived Water Quality and Reported Health among Adults during the Flint, MI Water Crisis.” Californian Journal of Health Promotion 15, no. 1 (2017): 56–61.

Kruger, Daniel J., Gergana D. Kodjebacheva, and Suzanne Cupal. “Poor Tap Water Quality Experiences and Poor Sleep Quality during the Flint, Michigan Municipal Water Crisis.” Sleep Health 3, no. 4 (August 2017): 241–243.

Krupp, Tyler. “Phenomenology.” In SAGE Encyclopedia of Political Theory, edited by Mark Bevir, 1032–1036. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2010.

LaFrance, David B. “The Path from Flint.” Environmental Forum 34, no. 1 (January/February 2017): 24–31.

Laidlaw, Mark A. S., Gabriel M. Filippelli, Richard C. Sadler, Christopher R. Gonzales, Andrew S. Ball, and Howard W. Mielke. “Children’s Blood Lead Seasonality in Flint, Michigan (USA), and Soil-Sourced Lead Hazard Risks.” International Journal of Environmental Resources and Public Health 13, no. 4 (March 2016): 358–372.

Laitner, Bill, Melanie Scott Dorsey, and Matt Helms. “How Emergency Financial Managers Changed Michigan.” Governing, February 25, 2013.

Lambrinidou, Yanna. “On Listening, Science, and Justice: A Call for Exercising Care in What Lessons We Draw from Flint.” Environmental Science and Technology 50, no. 22 (November 2016): 12058–12059.

Lambrinidou, Yanna. “Top Ten Myths about Lead in Drinking Water.” LEAD Action News 18, no. 2 (October 2017).

Lambrinidou, Yanna. “When Technical Experts Set Out to ‘Do Good’: Deficit-Based Constructions of ‘The Public’ and the Moral Imperative for New Visions of Engagement.” Michigan Journal of Sustainability. Forthcoming.

LAN and ROWE. Analysis of the Flint River as a Permanent Water Supply for the City of Flint. July 2011.

Langer, Ellen J. Mindfulness. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 1989.

Langlois, Daniel K., John B. Kaneene, Vilma Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Barbara L. Daniels, Hilda Mejia-Abreu, Nancy A. Frank, and John P. Buchweitz. “Investigation of Blood Lead Concentrations in Dogs Living in Flint, Michigan.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, no. 8 (October 2017): 912–921.

Lanphear, Bruce P., et al. “Low-Level Environmental Lead Exposure and Children’s Intellectual Function: An International Pooled Analysis.” Environmental Health Perspectives 113, no. 7 (July 2005): 894–899.

Latour, Bruno. Science in Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987.

Latour, Bruno, and Steve Woolgar. Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Lederman, Jacob. “Flint’s Water Crisis Is No Accident. It’s the Result of Years of Devastating Free-Market Reforms.” In These Times, January 22, 2016.

Lee, Shawna J., Amy Krings, Sara Rose, Krista Dover, Jessica Ayoub, and Fatima Salman. “Racial Inequality and the Implementation of Emergency Manager Laws in Economically Distressed Urban Areas.” Children and Youth Services Review 70 (November 2016): 1–7.

Leonardi, Joseph M., and William J. Gruhn. Flint River Assessment: Special Report. Ann Arbor: Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Fisheries Division, 2001.

Lerner, Steve. Diamond: A Struggle for Environmental Justice in Louisiana’s Chemical Corridor. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.

Lerner, Steve. Sacrifice Zones: The Front Lines of Chemical Exposure in the United States. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2010.

Levin, Edward D. “Crumbling Infrastructure and Learning Impairment: A Call for Responsibility.” Environmental Health Perspectives 124, no. 5 (May 2016): A79.

Levine, Adeline Gordon. Love Canal: Science, Politics, and People. Lexington, KY: Lexington Books, 1982.

Lewis, Chris. “Does Michigan’s Emergency-Manager Law Disenfranchise Black Citizens?” The Atlantic, May 9, 2013.

Li, Tania M. “Rendering Society Technical: Government through Community and the Ethnographic Turn at the World Bank in Indonesia.” In Adventures in Aidland: The Anthropology of Professionals in International Development, edited by David Mosse, 57–80. Oxford: Berghahn, 2011.

Liu, Mike. “Marc Edwards: Virginia Tech Professor and Family Man by Day, Hero by Night.” Collegiate Times, April 30, 2017.

Logan, Nneka. “The Flint Water Crisis: An Analysis of Public Relations as a Mediator between Human and Corporate Persons.” Public Relations Review 44 (2018): 47–55.

Loh, Carolyn G. “The Everyday Emergency: Planning and Democracy under Austerity Regimes.” Urban Affairs Review 52, no. 5 (March 2016): 832–863.

Lora-Wainwright, Anna. Resigned Activism: Living with Pollution in Rural China. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2017.

Lubitow, Amy. “Collaborative Frame Construction in Social Movement Campaigns: Bisphenol-A (BPA) and Scientist–Activist Mobilization.” Social Movement Studies 12, no. 4 (June 2013): 429–447.

Lubrano, Jonathon. “Water, Lead, and Environmental Justice: Easing the Flint Water Crisis with a Public Water Contamination Liability Fund.” William and Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review 42, no. 1 (2017): 331–355.

Lurie, Julia. “Meet the Mom Who Helped Expose Flint’s Toxic Water Nightmare.” Mother Jones, January 21, 2016.

Mack, Elizabeth A., and Sarah Wrase. “A Burgeoning Crisis? A Nationwide Assessment of the Geography of Water Affordability in the United States.” PLoS ONE 12, no. 1 (January 2017): 1–19.

Mahler, Jonathan. “Now That the Factories Are Closed, It’s Tee Time in Benton Harbor, Mich.” New York Times Magazine, December 15, 2011.

Maloney, Bryan, Baindu L. Bayon, Nasser H. Zawia, and Debomoy K. Lahiri. “Latent Consequences of Early-life Lead (Pb) Exposure and the Future: Addressing the Pb Crisis.” NeuroToxicology 68 (September 2018): 126–132.

Mann, Thomas J. “Springtime in Flintown: Disappointment, Affront, and Failure.” Environmental Justice 9, no. 3 (June 2016): 65–68.

Mansbridge, Jane, James Bohman, Simone Chambers, Thomas Christiano, Archon Fung, John Parkinson, Dennis F. Thompson, and Mark E. Warren. “A Systemic Approach to Deliberative Democracy.” In Deliberative Systems, edited by John Parkinson and Jane Mansbridge, 1–26. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Markowitz, Gerald, and David Rosner. “Citizen Scientists and the Lessons of Flint.” The Milbank Quarterly, October 2016.

Markowitz, Gerald, and David Rosner. Lead Wars: The Politics of Science and the Fate of America’s Children. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013.

Mascarenhas, Michael. “The Flint Water Crisis. A Case of Environmental Injustice or Environmental Racism.” Testimony delivered to Michigan Civil Rights Commission. September 8, 2016.

Mascarenhas, Michael. Where the Waters Divide: Neoliberalism, White Privilege, and Environmental Racism in Canada. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2012.

Massaro, Toni M., and Ellen Elizabeth Brooks. “Flint of Outrage.” Notre Dame Law Review 93, no. 1 (November 2017): 155–212.

Masten, Susan J., Simon H. Davies, and Shawn P. McElmurry. “Flint Water Crisis: What Happened and Why?” Journal—American Water Works Association 108, no. 12 (December 2016): 22–34.

Matsa, Katerina Eva, Amy Mitchell, and Galen Stocking. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis.” Pew Research Center, April 27, 2017.

May, Hillary. “Marc Edwards: Corrosion Man.” Virginia Tech Magazine, Summer 2011, 10–11.

May, Jake. “Debunking 4 Claims by Gov. Snyder on the Flint Water Crisis.” MLive, May 9, 2016.

Maynard, Andrew. “Can Citizen Science Empower Disenfranchised Communities?” The Conversation, January 27, 2016.

Maynard, Mark. “Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the Emergency Manager Takeover of Michigan, and How We Allowed It to Happen.”, July 29, 2014.

Mays, Melissa. “Flint Mom Shares the Heartbreak of Giving Her Kids Poisoned Water.” Interview by The Stir, February 1, 2016.

Mazur, Allan. A Hazardous Inquiry: The Rashomon Effect at Love Canal. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.

McClinton, Claire. “Are Flint Citizens Ready to Live without Democracy?: Councilman Censure Begs the Question.” People’s Tribune, February 2014.

McClinton, Claire. “Citizens Reject Government by Edict, Dictator Law Enrages Community.” People’s Tribune, March 2012.

McClinton, Claire. “Coming Soon to a Town near You! State Law Empowers ‘Manager’ to Set Aside Collective Bargaining Agreements, Seize Public Assets.” People’s Tribune, April 2011.

McClinton, Claire. “Democracy: Are Flint Citizens Ready to Live without It???” People’s Tribune, March 2014.

McClinton, Claire. “‘A Democracy Problem’: As Debate Brings Attention to Flint, a Look at the Roots of the Water Crisis.” Interview by Amy Goodman. Democracy Now!, February 17, 2016.

McClinton, Claire. “Emergency Manager Law Enables Corporate Takeover of Michigan’s Water.” People’s Tribune, August 2015.

McClinton, Claire. “Flint Protest Exposes Emergency Manager Order to Silence Public.” People’s Tribune, June 2014.

McClinton, Claire. “Judge Drops Bomb on Illegal Water Rate Hikes in Flint, MI: Ruling Breathes Life into Fight for Water Rights.” People’s Tribune, September 2015.

McClinton, Claire. “No Safe Affordable Water—No Peace in Flint, MI.” People’s Tribune, March 2015.

McClinton, Claire. “Opposition to Emergency Manager Law Heats up in Michigan.” People’s Tribune, October 2012.

McClinton, Claire. “Pontiac, MI: Dictator Bill Destroys Michigan City.” People’s Tribune, July 2011.

McClinton, Claire. “Residents Ask, ‘Are They Trying to Kill Us?’” People’s Tribune, February 2015.

McClinton, Claire. “Water Unfit for Auto Production.” People’s Tribune, November 2014.

McClinton, Claire. “Water Warriors from Flint Expose What Is Really Going on.” People’s Tribune, March 2016.

McClinton, Claire. “Water Wars Escalate in Flint, MI.” People’s Tribune, December 2015.

McClinton, Claire. “‘What’s the Matter with Michigan?’” People’s Tribune, August 2014.

McGuire, Michael J., Janice A. Beecher, Mona Hanna-Attisha, Susan J. Masten, and Joan B. Rose. “Roundtable—The Flint Crisis.” Journal—American Water Works Association 108, no. 7 (July 2016): 26–34.

McGurty, Eileen. Transforming Environmentalism: Warren County, PCBs, and the Origins of Environmental Justice. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2009.

McKnight, John. “Services Are Bad for People.” Organizing, Spring/Summer 1991, 41–44.

McNutt, Marcia. “Economics of Public Safety.” Science 351, no. 6274 (February 2016): 641.

Medearis, John. “Social Movements and Deliberative Democratic Theory.” British Journal of Political Science 35 (January 2005): 53–75.

Medina, José. “The Relevance of Credibility Excess in a Proportional View of Epistemic Injustice: Differential Epistemic Authority and the Social Imaginary.” Social Epistemology 25, no. 1 (2011): 15–35.

Medvecky, Fabien. “Fairness in Knowing: Science Communication and Epistemic Justice.” Science and Engineering Ethics (September 2017): 1–16.

Meyer, David S. “Protest and Political Opportunities.” Annual Review of Sociology 30 (2004): 125–145.

Meyer, David S., and Debra C. Minkoff. “Conceptualizing Political Opportunity.” Social Forces 82, no. 4 (June 2004): 1457–1492.

Michigan Civil Rights Commission. The Flint Water Crisis: Systemic Racism through the Lens of Flint. Lansing: State of Michigan, February 17, 2017.

Michigan Education Association. “The Truth about the Mackinac Center.” August 2015.

Miller, DeMond Shondell, and Nyjeer Wesley. “Toxic Disasters, Biopolitics, and Corrosive Communities: Guiding Principles in the Quest for Healing in Flint, Michigan.” Environmental Justice 9, no. 3 (June 2016): 69–75.

Milloy, Steven. “EPA’s Lead Heads.” Washington Times, April 5, 2004.

Mills, C. Wright. The Sociological Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Milman, Oliver, and Jessica Glenza. “At Least 33 US Cities Used Water Testing ‘Cheats’ over Lead Concerns.” Guardian, June 2, 2016.

Minghine, Anthony. “The Great Revenue Sharing Heist.” Michigan Municipal League Review, February 2014.

Minkler, Meredith. Community Organizing and Community Building for Health and Welfare. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2012.

Mohai, Paul. “Environmental Justice and the Flint Water Crisis.” Michigan Sociological Review 32 (Fall 2018): 1–41.

Mohai, Paul. Written Testimony of Paul Mohai, Professor of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Michigan. Hearings on the Flint Water Crisis before the Michigan Civil Rights Commission, September 8, 2016.

Mohler, Valerie. “Meet the Man Mark Ruffalo Hand-Picked to Fight for Clean Water: Q&A with Water Defense Chief Scientist Scott Smith.”, March 12, 2014.

Moorman, Eric. “‘A Greater Sense of Urgency’: EPA’s Emergency Power under the Safe Drinking Water Act and Lessons from Flint, Michigan.” Environmental Law Reporter 47, no. 9 (September 2017): 10786–10799.

Morckel, Victoria. “Patronage and Access to a Legacy City Farmers’ Market: A Case Study of the Relocation of the Flint, Michigan, Market.” Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability 22, no. 10 (2017): 1268–1289.

Morckel, Victoria. “Why the Flint, Michigan, USA Water Crisis Is an Urban Planning Failure.” Cities 62 (2017): 23–27.

Morckel, Victoria, and Greg Rybarczyk. “The Effects of the Water Crisis on Population Dynamics in the City of Flint, Michigan.” Cities and Health, July 2018, 1–13.

Morckel, Victoria, and Kathryn Terzano. “Legacy City Residents’ Lack of Trust in Their Governments: An Examination of Flint, Michigan Residents’ Trust at the Height of the Water Crisis.” Journal of Urban Affairs, August 2018, 1–17.

Moss, Kary L. “Environmental Justice at the Crossroads.” William and Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review 24, no. 1 (2000): 35–66.

Mostafavi, Beata. “What Happened Last Time? A Look Back at Flint’s 2002 State Takeover.” MLive, November 10, 2011.

Moyo, Otrude N. “A Beautiful Community, but a Troubled City: Flint’s Water Crisis.” Alternate Routes: A Journal of Critical Social Research 28 (2017): 233–247.

Mueller, Michael, Deborah Tippins, and Lynn Bryan. “The Future of Citizen Science.” Democracy and Education 20, no. 1 (February 2012): 1–12.

Muhammad, Michael, E. Hill De Loney, Cassandra L. Brooks, Shervin Assari, DeWaun Robinson, and Cleopatra H. Caldwell. “‘I Think That’s All a Lie … I Think It’s Genocide’: Applying a Critical Race Praxis to Youth Perceptions of Flint Water Contamination.” Ethnicity and Disease 28 (2018): 241–246.

Murphy, Austin. “In Service of Municipal Bondholders: Emergency ‘Management’ and Poison Water in the Flint Case.” SSRN, July 23, 2018.

New York Times Editorial Board. “The Racism at the Heart of Flint’s Crisis.” New York Times, March 25, 2016.

Nickels, Ashley E. “Approaches to Municipal Takeover: Home Rule Erosion and State Intervention in Michigan and New Jersey.” State and Local Government Review 48, no. 3 (September 2016): 194–207.

Nickels, Ashley E. Power, Participation, and Protest in Flint, Michigan: Unpacking the Policy Paradox of Municipal Takeover. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2019.

Nickels, Ashley E., and Jason D. Rivera, eds. Community Development and Public Administration Theory: Promoting Democratic Principles to Improve Communities. New York: Routledge, 2018.

Nowling, William D., and Mi Rosie Jahng. “Agenda-Building and Public Official Communication in the Pre-Crisis Stage of the Flint, Michigan Water Contamination Crisis.” Paper presented at the 20th International Public Relations Research Conference (March 8–12, 2017): 243–251.

Nriagu, Jerome, Chuanwu Xi, Azhar Siddique, Annette Vincent, and Basem Shomar. “Influence of Household Water Filters on Bacteria Growth and Trace Metals in Tap Water of Doha, Qatar.” Scientific Reports 8, no. 8268 (2018): 1–16.

Nukpezah, Julius A. “The Financial and Public Health Emergencies in Flint, Michigan: Crisis Management and the American Federalism.” Risk, Hazards, and Crisis in Public Policy 8, no. 4 (August 2017): 284–311.

Nussbaum, Martha. Upheavals of Thought: The Intelligence of Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Nyers, Peter. “Abject Cosmopolitanism: the Politics of Protection in the Anti-Deportation Movement.” Third World Quarterly 24, no. 6 (2003): 1069–1093.

Olson, Erik, and Kristi Pullen Fedinick. What’s in Your Water? Flint and Beyond: Analysis of EPA Data Reveals Widespread Lead Crisis Potentially Affecting Millions of Americans. New York: Natural Resources Defense Council, June 2016.

Olson, Randy. Houston, We Have a Narrative: Why Science Needs Story. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2015.

Olson, Terese. “The Science behind the Flint Water Crisis: Corrosion of Pipes, Erosion of Trust.” The Conversation, January 28, 2016.

Olson, Terese M., et al. “Forensic Estimates of Lead Release from Lead Service Lines during the Water Crisis in Flint, Michigan.” Environmental Science Technology Letters 4, no. 9 (July 2017): 356–361.

Otiko, Manny. “Residents Say Flint River Was Contaminated with Dead Bodies, Shopping Carts, but City Still Used It as a Water Source.” Atlanta Black Star, January 15, 2016.

Ottinger, Gwen. “Buckets of Resistance: Standards and the Effectiveness of Citizen Science.” Science, Technology, and Human Values 35, no. 2 (2010): 244–270.

Ottinger, Gwen. Refining Expertise: How Responsible Engineers Subvert Environmental Justice Challenges. New York: New York University Press, 2013.

Ottinger, Gwen. “Social Movement-Based Citizen Science.” In The Rightful Place of Science: Citizen Science, edited by Darlene Cavalier and Eric B. Kennedy, 89–104. Tempe, AZ: Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes, 2016.

Ottinger, Gwen, and Benjamin Cohen, eds. Technoscience and Environmental Justice: Expert Cultures in a Grassroots Movement. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011.

Paneth, Nigel. “Review of Grossman DS, Slusky DJG, The Effect of an Increase in Lead in the Water System on Fertility and Birth Outcomes; The Case of Flint, Michigan.”

Parkinson, John, and Jane Mansbridge, eds. Deliberative Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Parks, Jeffrey, Kelsey J. Pieper, Adrienne Katner, Min Tang, and Marc Edwards. “Potential Challenges Meeting the American Academy of Pediatrics’ Lead in School Drinking Water Goal of 1 μg/L.” Corrosion 74, no. 8 (August 2018): 914–917.

Patel, Anisha I., and Laura A. Schmidt. “Water Access in the United States: Health Disparities Abound and Solutions Are Urgently Needed.” American Journal of Public Health 107, no. 9 (September 2017): 1354–1356.

Patterson, Molly, and Kristen Renwick Monroe. “Narrative in Political Science.” Annual Review of Political Science 1 (June 1998): 315–331.

Pauli, Benjamin J. “In Gov. Snyder’s Flint Oversight Board’s Decision on a Tax Lien Moratorium, More than Just Finances Are at Stake.” Eclectablog, June 29, 2017.

Pauli, Benjamin J. “Rethinking the Urban Crisis in Flint, Michigan.” City 20, no. 3 (July 2016): 512–516.

Pauli, Benjamin J. “‘Stop Poisoning Our Children!’: Motherhood and Political Agency in the Flint Water Crisis.” Unpublished paper.

Pellow, David Naguib. Garbage Wars. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002.

Pellow, David Naguib. “Popular Epidemiology and Environmental Movements: Mapping Active Narratives for Empowerment.” Humanity and Society 21, no. 3 (August 1997): 307–321.

Pellow, David Naguib. Resisting Global Toxics: Transnational Movements for Environmental Justice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007.

Pellow, David Naguib, and Robert J. Brulle, eds. Power, Justice, and the Environment: A Critical Appraisal of the Environmental Justice Movement. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.

Perreault, Tom, Rutgerd Boelens, and Jeroen Vos. “Introduction: Re-Politicizing Water Allocation.” In Water Justice, edited by Rutgerd Boelens, Tom Perreault, and Jeroen Vos, 34–42. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

Petryna, Adriana. Life Exposed: Biological Citizens after Chernobyl. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Pew Charitable Trusts. The State Role in Local Government Financial Distress. Philadelphia: Pew Charitable Trusts, July 2013.

Philo, John C. “Local Government Fiscal Emergencies and the Disenfranchisement of Victims of the Global Recession.” Journal of Law in Society 13, no. 1 (Fall 2011): 71–110.

Picker, Randal C., and Michael W. McConnell. “When Cities Go Broke: A Conceptual Introduction to Municipal Bankruptcy.” University of Chicago Law Review 60, no. 2 (Spring 1993): 425–495.

Pieper, Kelsey J., Rebekah Martin, Min Tang, LeeAnne Walters, Jeffrey Parks, Siddhartha Roy, Christina Devine, and Marc A. Edwards. “Evaluating Water Lead Levels during the Flint Water Crisis.” Environmental Science and Technology 52 (2018): 8124−8132.

Pieper, Kelsey J., Min Tang, and Marc A. Edwards. “Flint Water Crisis Caused by Interrupted Corrosion Control: Investigating ‘Ground Zero’ Home.” Environmental Science and Technology 51, no. 4 (February 2017): 2007−2014.

Polletta, Francesca. “‘Free Spaces’ in Collective Action.” Theory and Society 28, no. 1 (February 1999): 1–38.

Polletta, Francesca. It Was Like a Fever: Storytelling in Protest and Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Polletta, Francesca, and Beth Gharrity Gardner. “Narrative and Social Movements.” In The Oxford Handbook of Social Movements, edited by Donatella Della Porta and Mario Diani, 534–548. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Progress Michigan. “Who’s Running Michigan? A Report on the Activities and Bias of the Mackinac Center for Public Policy.” Lansing: Progress Michigan, November 13, 2013.

Pruett, Natalie. “Rebuild Flint the Right Way: Flint Water Crisis Infrastructure Response Guide.” City of Flint, Michigan, August 2016.

Pulido, Laura. “Flint, Environmental Racism, and Racial Capitalism.” Capitalism Nature Socialism 27, no. 3 (July 2016): 1–16.

Pyles, Loretta. “Community Organizing for Post-disaster Social Development: Locating Social Work.” International Social Work 50, no. 3 (May 2007): 321–333.

Rabin, Richard. “The Lead Industry and Lead Water Pipes ‘A MODEST CAMPAIGN.’” American Journal of Public Health 98, no. 9 (September 2008): 1584–1592.

Raftelis Financial Consultants, Inc. Flint Water Rate Analysis Final Report. Lansing, MI: Department of Treasury, May 13, 2016.

Ramos, Elana. “The Dangers of Water Privatization: An Exploration of the Discriminatory Practices of Private Water Companies.” Environmental and Earth Law Journal 7 (2017): 188–217.

Rand, Ayn. The Virtue of Selfishness: A New Concept of Egoism. New York: Signet, 1964.

Ranganathan, Malini. “Thinking with Flint: Racial Liberalism and the Roots of an American Water Tragedy.” Capitalism Nature Socialism 27, no. 3 (July 2016): 17–33.

Rauch, Molly. “When Your Water Poisons Your Children.” Good Housekeeping, February 15, 2016.

RealtyTrac. “U.S. Residential Property Vacancy Rate Drops 9.3 Percent between Q3 2015 and Q1 2016.” February 9, 2016.

Rhoads, William J., Emily Garner, Pan Ji, Ni Zhu, Jeffrey Parks, David Otto Schwake, Amy Pruden, and Marc A. Edwards. “Distribution System Operational Deficiencies Coincide with Reported Legionnaires’ Disease Clusters in Flint, MI.” Environmental Science and Technology 51, no. 20 (August 2017): 11986–11995.

Robbins, Denise. “ANALYSIS: How Michigan and National Reporters Covered the Flint Water Crisis.” Media Matters for America, February 2, 2016.

Robinson, Joanna L. Contested Water: The Struggle against Water Privatization in the United States and Canada. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013.

Rolston, Jessica Smith. Mining Coal and Undermining Gender: Rhythms of Work and Family in the American West. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2014.

Rosati, Clayton. “Development as Freedom after Flint: A Geographical Approach to Capabilities and Antipoverty Communication.” Journal of Multicultural Discourses 13, no. 2 (May 2018): 139–159.

Rose, Joan. “TTHM in Drinking Water: The Flint, Michigan Story; A Lesson for Us All.”, March 13, 2015.

Rosner, David. “Flint, Michigan: a Century of Environmental Injustice.” American Journal of Public Health 106, no. 2 (February 2016): 200–201.

Ross, Tracey, and Danyelle Solomon. “Flint Isn’t the Only Place with Racism in the Water.” The Nation, February 9, 2016.

Ross-Brown, Sam. “Beyond Flint: How Local Governments Ignore Federal Water Standards.” The American Prospect, February 24, 2016.

ROWE Professional Services Company. Analysis of the Flint River as a Permanent Water Supply for the City of Flint. July 2011.

ROWE Professional Services Company. City of Flint Water Reliability Study: Distribution System. December 2013.

ROWE Professional Services Company. Review of December 21, 2012 Presentation—City of Flint Water Supply Assessment. January 2013.

Roy, Siddhartha. “The Hand-in-Hand Spread of Mistrust and Misinformation in Flint.” American Scientist 105, no. 1 (January–February 2017): 22–26.

Roy, Siddartha, and Marc A. Edwards. “Preventing Another Lead (Pb) in Drinking Water Crisis: Lessons from the Washington D.C. and Flint MI Contamination Events.” Current Opinion in Environmental Science and Health, October 31, 2018.

Ruble, Kayla, Jacob Carah, Abby Ellis, and Sarah Childress. “Flint Water Crisis Deaths Likely Surpass Official Toll.” Frontline, July 24, 2018.

Ruddick, Sarah. Maternal Thinking: Toward a Politics of Peace. Boston: Beacon Press, 1995.

Ruffalo, Mark. “Our Work in 2015.”, December 22, 2015.

Rutt, Rebecca L., and Jevgeniy Bluwstein. “Quests for Justice and Mechanisms of Suppression in Flint, Michigan.” Environmental Justice 10, no. 2 (April 2017): 27–35.

Ryder, Stacia. “The Flint Water Crisis and Beyond: Looking through the Lens of Environmental Justice.” Natural Hazards Observer XL, no. 4 (April 2016): 23–26.

Sadler, Richard Casey, and Andrew R. Highsmith. “Rethinking Tiebout: The Contribution of Political Fragmentation and Racial/Economic Segregation to the Flint Water Crisis.” Environmental Justice 9, no. 5 (October 2016): 143–151.

Sadler, Richard Casey, Jenny LaChance, and Mona Hanna-Attisha. “Social and Built Environmental Correlates of Predicted Blood Lead Levels in the Flint Water Crisis.” American Journal of Public Health 107, no. 5 (May 2017): 763–769.

Salinsky, Jordan I. “Comparing the 2014–2016 Flint Water Crisis to the 1993 Milwaukee Cryptosporidium Outbreak.” Environmental Justice 9, no. 4 (August 2016): 119–128.

Salmon, Barrington M. “American Genocide—Flint Water Crisis.” The Final Call, June 28, 2016.

Sapotichne, Joshua, Erika Rosebrook, Eric A. Scorsone, Danielle Kaminski, Mary Doidge, and Traci Taylor. “Beyond State Takeovers: Reconsidering the Role of State Government in Local Financial Distress, with Important Lessons for Michigan and its Embattled Cities.” MSU Extension White Paper, August 31, 2015.

Savage, Chris. “Another Michigan City Faces an Emergency Manager: Taylor.” Eclectablog, January 23, 2012.

Savage, Chris. “Benton Harbor/Emergency Financial Manager News Update.” Eclectablog, April 21, 2011.

Savage, Chris. “Benton Harbor Is a City We’ve Failed: The Incredible Audacity of EFM Joe Harris.” Eclectablog, April 25, 2011.

Savage, Chris. “Imposition of an Emergency Manager Now Being Used to Threaten Unions.” Eclectablog, July 16, 2011.

Savage, Chris. “Michigan GOP Pulling a Stealth-Walker Move to Damage Unions.” Eclectablog, March 9, 2011.

Savage, Chris. “Michigan Rising: Aiming to Recall Snyder—While Disgruntled Former Volunteers Target Michigan Rising.” A2Politico, January 19, 2012. Accessed July 1, 2017.

Savage, Chris. “MI Gov. Rick Snyder’s Takeover of Benton Harbor Tied to Shoreline Development—What Rachel Missed.” Eclectablog, April 19, 2011.

Savage, Chris. “Protest Rick Snyder at the Blossomtime Grand Floral Parade This Saturday.” Eclectablog, May 3, 2011.

Savage, Chris. “Some Thoughts on the Benton Harbor Situation.” Eclectablog, May 7, 2011.

Savage, Chris. “Think Emergency Managers Are Only for ‘Black’ Schools and Cities? Think Again, Part 2.” Eclectablog, January 13, 2012.

Schlosberg, David. Defining Environmental Justice: Theories, Movements, and Nature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Schlosberg, David. Environmental Justice and the New Pluralism: The Challenge of Difference for Environmentalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Schlosberg, David. “Theorising Environmental Justice: The Expanding Sphere of a Discourse.” Environmental Politics 22, no. 1 (2013): 37–55.

Schmitt, Carl. The Concept of the Political. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Schneider, Andrew, and David McCumber. An Air That Kills: How the Asbestos Poisoning of Libby, Montana, Uncovered a National Scandal. New York: Berkley Books, 2005.

Schnoor, Jerald L. “Recognizing Drinking Water Pipes as Community Health Hazards.” Journal of Chemical Education 93, no. 4 (April 2016): 581–582.

Scholes, Robert, James Phelan, and Robert Kellogg. The Nature of Narrative. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Schragger, Richard. City Power: Urban Governance in a Global Age. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Schragger, Richard. “Flint Wasn’t Allowed Democracy.” Slate, February 8, 2016.

Schwake, David Otto, Emily Garner, Owen R. Strom, Amy Pruden, and Marc A. Edwards. “Legionella DNA Markers in Tap Water Coincident with a Spike in Legionnaires’ Disease in Flint, MI.” Environmental Science and Technology Letters 3, no. 9 (July 2016): 311–315.

Scorsone, Eric. “Frequently Asked Questions about the New Michigan Local Financial Emergency Law (Public Act 436 of 2012).” East Lansing: Michigan State University, January 2013.

Scorsone, Eric, and Nicolette Bateson. “Funding the Legacy: The Cost of Municipal Workers’ Retirement Benefits to Michigan Communities.” MSU Extension White Paper, March 14, 2013.

Scorsone, Eric, and Nicolette Bateson. “Long-Term Crisis and Systemic Failure: Taking the Fiscal Stress of America’s Older Cities Seriously.” Michigan State University Extension, September 2011.

Scott, Cheri R. “Chronicling the Flint, Michigan Water Crisis: A Rigid Dichotomy between Environmental Policy and Environmental Justice.” PhD diss., Union Institute and University, Cincinnati, 2017.

Scott, Rebecca R. “Structures of Environmental Inequality: Property and Vulnerability.” Environmental Justice 11, no. 3 (June 2018): 137–142.

Seamon, David. “Lived Bodies, Place, and Phenomenology: Implications for Human Rights and Environmental Justice.” Journal of Human Rights and the Environment 4, no. 2 (September 2013): 143–166.

Sedlak, David. “Crossing the Imaginary Line.” Environmental Science and Technology 50, no. 18 (2016): 9803–9804.

Sedlak, David. Water 4.0: The Past, Present, and Future of the World’s Most Vital Resource. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014.

Sellers, Chris. “Piping as Poison: The Flint Water Crisis and America’s Toxic Infrastructure.” The Conversation, January 25, 2016.

Seltenrich, Nate. “The Forest and the Trees: How Population-Level Health Protections Sometimes Fail the Individual.” Environmental Health Perspectives 125, no. 4 (April 2017): A65–A70.

Settlage, Rachel Gonzalez. “Status in a State of Emergency: U Visas and the Flint Water Crisis.” Harvard Latinx Law Review 20 (Spring 2017): 121–169.

Shafer, Gregory. “Confronting Whiteness and the Flint Water Crisis.” The Humanist (March/April 2016): 22–26.

Shah, Keneil K., J. M. Oleske, H. F. Gómez, A. L. Davidow, and J. D. Bogden. “Blood Lead Concentrations of Children in the United States: A Comparison of States Using Two Very Large Databases.” Journal of Pediatrics 185 (June 2017): 218–223.

Shariff, Nayyirah. “Public Act 4: Crushing Democracy.” Courier 36, no. 21 (May 2012): 1.

Sharp, Gene. The Role of Power in Nonviolent Struggle. Boston: The Albert Einstein Institution, 1990.

Sherwin, Brie D. “Pride and Prejudice and Administrative Zombies: How Economic Woes, Outdated Environmental Regulations, and State Exceptionalism Failed Flint, Michigan.” University of Colorado Law Review 88, no. 3 (2017): 653–720.

Shiva, Vandana. Water Wars: Privatization, Pollution, and Profit. Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 2002.

Sicotte, Diane M., and Robert J. Brulle. “Social Movements for Environmental Justice through the Lens of Social Movement Theory.” In The Routledge Handbook of Environmental Justice, edited by Ryan Holifield, Jayajit Chakraborty, and Gordon Walker, 25–36. New York: Routledge, 2017.

Singer, Alison, Steven Gray, Artina Sadler, Laura Schmitt Olabisi, Kyle Metta, Renee Wallace, Maria Claudia Lopez, Josh Introne, Maddie Gorman, and Jane Henderson. “Translating Community Narratives into Semi-quantitative Models to Understand the Dynamics of Socio-environmental Crises.” Environmental Modelling and Software 97 (2017): 46–55.

Smith, Donna. “Why Medicare for Libby and Medicaid for Flint?” Common Dreams, March 22, 2016.

Smith, Lindsey. “This Mom Helped Uncover What Was Really Going on with Flint’s Water.” Michigan Radio, December 14, 2015.

Smock, Kristina. Democracy in Action: Community Organizing and Urban Change. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.

Snow, David A., and Robert D. Benford. “Ideology, Frame Resonance, and Participant Mobilization.” International Social Movement Research 1, no. 1 (1988): 197–217.

Solnit, Rebecca. A Paradise Built in Hell: The Extraordinary Communities That Arise in Disaster. New York: Penguin Books, 2009.

Stampfler, Michael L. “Emergency Financial Management of Cities by the State: A Cure or Simply Kicking the Can down the Road.” Journal of Law in Society 14, no. 1 (Winter 2013): 235–244.

Stanley, Jason. “The Emergency Manager: Strategic Racism, Technocracy, and the Poisoning of Flint’s Children.” The Good Society 25, no. 1 (2016): 1–44.

Star, Susan Leigh. “The Ethnography of Infrastructure.” American Behavioral Scientist 43, no. 3 (November/December 1999): 377–391.

State of Michigan Department of Treasury. “Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Public Act 4 of 2011, the Local Government and School District Fiscal Accountability Act.” March 21, 2011.

Stedile, João Pedro. “Landless Battalions: The Sem Terra Movement of Brazil.” New Left Review 15 (May–June 2002): 76–104.

Stephens, Thomas. “The Flint River Lead Poisoning Catastrophe in Historical Perspective.” Counterpunch, February 12, 2016.

Stern, Paul C., and Harvey V. Fineberg, eds. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. Washington, D.C.: The National Academy Press, 1996.

Stout, Jeffrey. Blessed Are the Organized: Grassroots Democracy in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010.

Stringer, Rebecca. Knowing Victims: Feminism, Agency and Victim Politics in Neoliberal Times. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Strupp, Joe. “How National Media Failed Flint.” Media Matters for America, February 11, 2016.

Stuckler, David, and Sanjay Basu. The Body Economic: Why Austerity Kills; Recessions, Budget Battles, and the Politics of Life and Death. New York: Basic Books, 2013.

Sugrue, Thomas J. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.

Sullivan, Patrick. “Dictatorship or Democracy? Push to Repeal the Emergency Manager Law Goes Local.” Northern Express, June 26, 2011.

Sultana, Farhana, and Alex Loftus, eds. The Right to Water: Prospects and Possibilities. New York: Earthscan, 2012.

Susskind, Lawrence. “Water and Democracy: New Roles for Civil Society in Water Governance.” International Journal of Water Resources Development 29, no. 4 (December 2013): 666–677.

Swarts, Heidi J. Organizing Urban America: Secular and Faith-Based Progressive Movements. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.

Switzer, David, and Manuel Teodoro. “The Color of Drinking Water: Class, Race, Ethnicity, and Safe Drinking Water Act Compliance.” Journal—American Water Works Association 109, no. 9 (September 2017): 40–45.

Swyngedouw, Erik. “The Antinomies of the Postpolitical City: In Search of a Democratic Politics of Environmental Production.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 33, no. 3 (2009): 601–620.

Swyngedouw, Erik. “The Political Economy and Political Ecology of the Hydro-Social Cycle.” Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education 142, no. 1 (August 2009): 56–60.

Swyngedouw, Erik, and Nikolas C. Heynen. “Urban Political Ecology, Justice and the Politics of Scale.” Antipode 35, no. 5 (January 2004): 898–918.

Swyngedouw, Erik, and Maria Kaika. “Urban Political Ecology: Great Promises, Deadlock … and New Beginnings?” Documents d’Anàlisi Geogràfica 60, no. 3 (2014): 459–481.

Szasz, Andrew. EcoPopulism: Toxic Waste and the Movement for Environmental Justice. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.

Sze, Julie. Noxious New York: The Racial Politics of Urban Health and Environmental Justice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.

Sze, Julie, and Jonathan K. London. “Environmental Justice at the Crossroads.” Sociology Compass 2, no. 4 (2008): 1331–1354.

Taylor, Charles. “The Politics of Recognition.” In Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition, edited by Amy Gutmann, 25–73. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Taylor, Dorceta E. “The Rise of the Environmental Justice Paradigm: Injustice Framing and the Social Construction of Environmental Discourses.” American Behavioral Scientist 43, no. 4 (January 2000): 508–580.

Taylor, Dorceta E. Toxic Communities: Environmental Racism, Industrial Pollution, and Residential Mobility. New York: New York University Press, 2014.

Taylor, Jacquelyn Y., Michelle L. Wright, and David Housman. “Lead Toxicity and Genetics in Flint, MI.” NPJ Genomic Medicine 1 (June 2016): 16018.

Tesh, Sylvia Noble. Uncertain Hazards: Environmental Activists and Scientific Proof. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Thompson, Dennis F. “Deliberative Democratic Theory and Empirical Political Science.” Annual Review of Political Science 11 (June 2008): 497–520.

Torrice, Michael. “How Lead Ended Up in Flint’s Tap Water.” Chemical and Engineering News 94, no. 7 (February 2016): 26–29.

Touraine, Alain. “An Introduction to the Study of Social Movements.” Social Research 52, no. 4 (Winter 1985): 749–787.

Townsend, Jim. “Fixing Michigan’s Tax Limitation System: Steps to Avoid Detroit/Flint-Style Fiscal Crises.” Wayne Law Review 62, no. 2 (Winter 2017): 215–248.

Troesken, Werner. The Great Lead Water Pipe Disaster. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.

Tucker, Young, Jackson, Tull, Inc. City of Flint Water Supply Assessment. Flint, City of Flint, February 2013.

21st Century Infrastructure Commission. 21st Century Infrastructure Commission Report. November 30, 2016.

Unified Coordination Group. Flint Rash Investigation: A Report on Findings from Case Interviews, Water Testing, and Dermatologic Screenings for Rashes that Developed or Worsened after October 16, 2015. Flint, MI: Agency Unified Coordination Group, August 2016.

United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice. Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States: A National Report on the Racial and Socio-Economic Characteristics of Communities with Hazardous Waste Sites. New York: United Church of Christ, 1987.

US Government Accountability Office. Water Infrastructure: Information on Selected Midsize and Large Cities with Declining Populations. September 2016.

US House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce. Flint Water Crisis: Impacts and Lessons Learned. April 13, 2016.

Van Dyke, Nella, and Holly J. McCammon, eds. Strategic Alliances: Coalition Building and Social Movements. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2010.

Vang, Maiyoua. “Racial Composition of School District on School Leaders’ Responses to State Takeover: A Field Experiment on the Application of Michigan’s Emergency Manager Law.” Journal of Educational and Social Research 7, no. 2 (May 2017): 31–41.

Venkataraman, Bhawani. “The Paradox of Water and the Flint Crisis.” Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development 60, no. 1 (December 2017): 4–17.

Veolia. Flint, Michigan Water Quality Report. March 12, 2015.

Vock, Daniel C. “In Flint’s Aftermath, Water Will Run by New Rules.” Governing, September 2016.

Von Schnitzler, Antina. Democracy’s Infrastructure: Techno-Politics and Protest after Apartheid. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2016.

Wahowiak, Lindsey. “Infrastructure, Public Health Linked, Crisis in Flint Shows: Aging US Systems Pose Risks to Health.” The Nation’s Health 46, no. 3 (April 2016): 1–15.

Wang, May. “The Engineered Crisis in Flint.” Harvard Political Review, May 19, 2018.

Ward, Brandon. “The Promise of Jobs: Blackmail and Environmental Justice in Flint, Michigan, 1991–1995.” Environmental Justice 6, no. 5 (October 2013): 163–168.

Warren, Christian. Brush with Death: A Social History of Lead Poisoning. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

Washington, Harriet A. Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present. New York: Anchor Books, 2006.

Washington, Sylvia Hood, and Sheila R. Foster. “The Legal Discourse Surrounding the Water Crisis in Flint, Michigan: Interview with Sheila R. Foster.” Environmental Justice 9, no. 2 (April 2016): 59–64.

Washington, Sylvia Hood, and David Pellow. “Water Crisis in Flint, Michigan: Interview with David Pellow, Ph.D.” Environmental Justice 9, no. 2 (April 2016): 53–58.

Wernick, Adam. “This Professor Says Flint’s Water Crisis Amounts to Environmental Racism.” Public Radio International, February 11, 2016.

We the People of Detroit Community Research Collective. Mapping the Water Crisis: The Dismantling of African-American Neighborhoods in Detroit: Volume One. 2016.

Wheeler, Jacob. “What Government Owes Flint’s Poisoned Immigrant Community.” Bridge Magazine, May 24, 2016.

Wisely, John. “Was Flint River Water Good Enough to Drink?” Detroit Free Press, January 30, 2016.

Wood, Richard L. Faith in Action: Religion, Race, and Democratic Organizing in America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Woodly, Deva R. The Politics of Common Sense: How Social Movements Use Public Discourse to Change Politics and Win Acceptance. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Worth-Nelson, Jan. “Activists’ Letter Aims Grievances at Marc Edwards; He Calls It ‘Science Anarchy.’” East Village Magazine, June 2, 2018.

Worth-Nelson, Jan. “Longstanding ‘Systemic Racism’ Implicated in Flint Water Crisis, Civil Rights Commission Asserts.” East Village Magazine, February 18, 2017.

Wright, Jeff. “The Flint Water Crisis, DWSD, and GLWA: Monopoly, Price Gouging, Corruption, and the Poisoning of a City.” Written Testimony Submitted to the Michigan Civil Rights Commission. November 22, 2016.

Wu, Chia-Chen, Sudeshna Ghosh, Kelly J. Martin, Ameet J. Pinto, Vincent J. Denef, Terese M. Olsona, and Nancy G. Love. “The Microbial Colonization of Activated Carbon Block Point-of-Use (PoU) Filters with and without Chlorinated Phenol Disinfection By-Products.” Environmental Science: Water Research and Technology 3 (2017): 830–843.

Young, Gordon. Teardown: Memoir of a Vanishing City. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013.

Young, Iris Marion. “Activist Challenges to Deliberative Democracy.” Political Theory 29, no. 5 (October 2001): 670–690.

Young, Iris Marion. Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990.

Zahran, Sammy, Shawn P. McElmurry, Paul E. Kilgore, David Mushinski, Jack Press, Nancy G. Love, Richard C. Sadler, and Michele S. Swanson. “Assessment of the Legionnaires’ Disease Outbreak in Flint, Michigan.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115, no. 8 (February 2018): E1730–E1739.

Zahran, Sammy, Shawn P. McElmurry, and Richard C. Sadler. “Four Phases of the Flint Water Crisis: Evidence from Blood Lead Levels in Children.” Environmental Research 157 (May 2017): 160–172.

Zimring, Carl. Clean and White: A History of Environmental Racism in the United States. New York: New York University Press, 2016.

Zwarteveen, Margreet Z., and Rutgerd Boelens. “Defining, Researching and Struggling for Water Justice: Some Conceptual Building Blocks for Research and Action.” Water International 39, no. 2 (March 2014): 143–158.

No comments here
Why not start the discussion?