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Selected Bibliography

Published onMar 27, 2020
Selected Bibliography

In selecting the references listed below, I have tried to compile a near-comprehensive bibliography of the water crisis. That said, I have not included everything cited in the book’s endnotes. I have left out day-to-day news coverage as well as other articles and documents I deemed to be of less than general interest. Any source not cited in full here is cited in full in the endnotes.

Abernethy, Jacob, Cyrus Anderson, Chengyu Dai, Arya Farahi, Linh Nguyen, Adam Rauh, Eric Schwartz, Wenbo Shen, Guangsha Shi, Jonathan Stroud, Xinyu Tan, Jared Webb, and Sheng Yang. “Flint Water Crisis: Data-Driven Risk Assessment via Residential Water Testing.” Paper presented at Bloomberg Data for Good Exchange Conference, New York, September 25, 2016.

Abernethy, Jacob, Alex Chojnaki, Chengyu Dai, Arya Farahi, Eric Schwartz, Jared Webb, Guangsha Shi, and Daniel T. Zhang. “A Data Science Approach to Understanding Residential Water Contamination.” Paper presented at KDD, Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 13–17, 2017.

Abernethy, Jacob, Alex Chojnacki, Arya Farahi, Eric Schwartz, and Jared Webb. “ActiveRemediation: The Search for Lead Pipes in Flint, Michigan.” In KDD ’18: The 24th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery & Data Mining, August 19–23, 2018, London, United Kingdom, 5–14. New York: ACM, 2018.

Abouk, Rahi, and Scott Adams. “Birth Outcomes in Flint in the Early Stages of the Water Crisis.” Journal of Public Health Policy 39, no. 1 (February 2018): 68–85.

Abuelaish, Izzeldin, and Kirstie K. Russell. “The Flint Water Contamination Crisis: The Corrosion of Positive Peace and Human Decency.” Medicine, Conflict and Survival 33, no. 4 (2017): 242–249.

Adams, John. Risk. London: Routledge, 1995.

Agamben, Giorgio. State of Exception. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Agyeman, Julian, David Schlosberg, Luke Craven, and Caitlin Matthews. “Trends and Directions in Environmental Justice: From Inequity to Everyday Life, Community, and Just Sustainabilities.” Annual Review of Environment and Resoures 41 (November 2016): 321–340.

Alinsky, Saul. Rules for Radicals: A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals. New York: Vintage Books, 1989.

Allen, Barbara L. Uneasy Alchemy: Citizens and Experts in Louisiana’s Chemical Corridor Disputes. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003.

Allen, Joshua M., Amy A. Cuthbertson, Hannah K. Liberatore, Susana Y. Kimura, Anurag Mantha, Marc A. Edwards, and Susan D. Richardson. “Showering in Flint, MI: Is There a DBP Problem?” Journal of Environmental Sciences 58 (June 2017): 271–284.

American Society of Civil Engineers. 2017 Infrastructure Report Card: A Comprehensive Assessment of America’s Infrastructure. 2017.

Anand, Nikhil. “The Banality of Infrastructure.” Items: Insights from the Social Sciences. Social Science Research Council, June 27, 2017.

Anand, Nikhil. Hydraulic City: Water and the Infrastructures of Citizenship in Mumbai. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2017.

Anand, Nikhil. “Pressure: The PoliTechnics of Water Supply in Mumbai.” Cultural Anthropology 26, no. 4 (2011): 542–564.

Anderson, Michelle Wilde. “Democratic Dissolution: Radical Experimentation in State Takeovers of Local Governments.” Fordham Urban Law Journal 39, no. 3 (March 2012): 577–623.

Anderson, Michelle Wilde. “The New Minimal Cities.” Yale Law Journal 123, no. 5 (March 2014): 1118–1227.

Arbulu, Agustin V., and Daniel Levy. “A One-Year Update on the Recommendations in The Flint Water Crisis: Systemic Racism Through the Lens of Flint.” Michigan Civil Rights Commission, March 26, 2018.

Aronoff, Myron, and Jan Kubik. Anthropology and Political Science: A Convergent Approach. New York: Berghahn Books, 2013.

Atari, Dominic Odwa, Isaac Luginaah, and Jamie Baxter. “‘This Is the Mess That We Are Living In’: Residents Everyday Life Experiences of Living in a Stigmatized Community.” GeoJournal 76, no. 5 (October 2011): 483–500.

Athey, Stephanie, K. M. Ferebee, and Wendy S. Hesford. “The Poisoning of Flint and the Moral Economy of Human Rights.” Prose Studies 38, no. 1 (2016): 1–11.

August, Melissa. “The Plumbing Professor.” Time, June 8, 2004.

Auyero, Javier, and Débora Alejandra Swistun. Flammable: Environmental Suffering in an Argentine Shantytown. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Barber, Benjamin. If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013.

Barham, Tim. “Class Action Water Crisis: Resolving Flint’s New Split over CAFA’s Local Controversy Exception.” Baylor Law Review 70, no. 1 (March 2018): 149–170.

Bassett, Philip A. Soldier of Truth: The Trials of Rev. Edward Pinkney. N.p.: Self-published, 2016.

Baum, Fran, Colin MacDougall, and Danielle Smith. “Participatory Action Research.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60, no. 10 (October 2006): 854–857.

Beck, Ulrich. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage Publications, 1992.

Beecher, Janice. The Regionalization of Water Utilities: Perspectives, Literature Review, and Annotated Bibliography. National Regulatory Research Institute. Columbus, OH, July 1996.

Belenky, Mary Field, Blythe McVicker Clinchy, Nancy Rule Goldberger, and Jill Mattuck Tarule. Women’s Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind. New York: Basic Books, 1986.

Bell, Shannon Elizabeth. Fighting King Coal: The Challenges to Micromobilization in Central Appalachia. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2016.

Bellinger, David C. “Lead Contamination in Flint—An Abject Failure to Protect Public Health.” New England Journal of Medicine 374 (March 2016): 1101–1103.

Bendix, Aria. “How Flint Citizens Are Working Together to Save Their Community.” CityLab, April 29, 2016.

Benford, Robert D., and David S. Snow. “Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment.” Annual Review of Sociology 26 (2000): 611–639.

Benz, Terressa A. “Toxic Cities: Neoliberalism and Environmental Racism in Flint and Detroit Michigan.” Critical Sociology (2017): 1–14.

Berfield, Susan. “Financial Martial Law in Michigan.” Bloomberg Businessweek, April 28, 2011.

Berliner, Joshua V. “Environmental Injustice/Racism in Flint, Michigan: An Analysis of the Bodily Integrity Claim in Mays v. Snyder as Compared to Other Environmental Justice Cases.” Pace Environmental Law Review 35, no. 108 (2017): 108–134.

Bidwell, David. “Is Community-Based Participatory Research Postnormal Science?” Science, Technology, and Human Values 34, no. 6 (November 2009): 741–761.

Björkman, Lisa. Pipe Politics, Contested Waters: Embedded Infrastructures of Millennial Mumbai. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2013.

Blee, Kathleen M. Democracy in the Making: How Activist Groups Form. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Blocker, T. Jean, and Douglas Lee Eckberg. “Environmental Issues as Women’s Issues: General Concerns and Local Hazards.” Social Science Quarterly 70, no. 3 (September 1989): 586–593.

Bomey, Nathan. Detroit Resurrected: To Bankruptcy and Back. New York: W. W. Norton, 2016.

Bowen, Zachary. “The Flint Water Crisis: A Narrative with Administrative Recommendations.” Concept 40 (2017).

Boyer, Richard, and Herbert M. Morais. Labor’s Untold Story. Pittsburgh, PA: United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America, 1955.

Boyte, Harry. The Backyard Revolution: Understanding the New Citizen Movement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981.

Bravender, Marlena, and Caryl Walling. “Man-made Disaster Undermines Impoverished School District: The Flint Water Crisis.” eJournal of Education Policy (Spring 2017).

Brecher, Jeremy. Strike! Boston: South End Press, 1972.

Breines, Wini. Community and Organization in the New Left, 1962–1968: The Great Refusal. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989.

Brewer, James. “Michigan Blames Flint Water Crisis on Racism, Parts One and Two.” World Socialist website, March 3 and 4, 2017, accessed September 3, 2018.

Bridge Magazine Staff. “Disaster Day by Day: A Detailed Flint Crisis Timeline.” Bridge Magazine, February 4, 2016.

Brown, Mark B. Science in Democracy: Expertise, Institutions, and Representation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009.

Brown, Phil. “Popular Epidemiology and Toxic Waste Contamination: Lay and Professional Ways of Knowing.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 33 (September 1992): 267–281.

Brown, Phil. Toxic Exposures: Contested Illnesses and the Environmental Health Movement. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

Brown, Phil, and Faith I. T. Ferguson. “‘Making a Big Stink’: Women’s Work, Women’s Relationships, and Toxic Waste Activism.” Gender and Society 9, no. 2 (April 1995): 145–172.

Brown, Phil, and Edwin J. Mikkelsen. No Safe Place: Toxic Waste, Leukemia, and Community Action. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Brown, Phil, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Stephen Zavestoski, and the Contested Illnesses Research Group, eds. Contested Illnesses: Citizens, Science, and Health Social Movements. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.

Brown, Wendy. Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism’s Stealth Revolution. New York: Zone Books, 2015.

Bryant, Bunyan, and Paul Mohai, eds. Race and the Incidence of Environmental Hazards: A Time for Discourse. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1992.

Brulle, Robert J., and David N. Pellow. “Environmental Justice: Human Health and Environmental Inequalities.” Annual Review of Public Health 27 (2006): 103–124.

Buford, Talia, and Kristen Lombardi. “Steel Mill That Never Was ‘Casts a Shadow’ on EPA Office of Civil Rights.” The Center for Public Integrity, January 5, 2016.

Bullard, Robert D., ed. Confronting Environmental Racism: Voices from the Grassroots. Boston: South End Press, 1993.

Bullard, Robert D. Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.

Bullard, Robert D., and Glenn S. Johnson. “Environmental Justice: Grassroots Activism and Its Impact on Public Policy Decision Making.” Journal of Social Issues 56, no. 3 (Fall 2000): 555–578.

Burawoy, Michael. “The Extended Case Method.” Sociological Theory 16, no. 1 (March 1998): 4–33.

Burke, Katie L. “Flint Water Crisis Yields Hard Lessons in Science and Ethics.” American Scientist 104, no. 3 (May/June 2016): 134–136.

Burke, Katie L. “Moving Forward after Flint.” American Scientist 104, no. 3 (May/June 2016): 137–139.

Butler, Lindsey J., Madeleine K. Scammell, and Eugene B. Benson. “The Flint, Michigan, Water Crisis: A Case Study in Regulatory Failure and Environmental Injustice.” Environmental Justice 9, no. 4 (August 2016): 93–97.

Butts, Rachel, and Stephen Gasteyer. “More Cost per Drop: Water Rates, Structural Inequality, and Race in the United States—The Case of Michigan.” Environmental Practice 13, no. 4 (December 2011): 386–395.

Byrne, Brenda G., Sarah McColm, Shawn P. McElmurry, Paul E. Kilgore, Joanne Sobeck, Rick Sadler, Nancy G. Love, and Michele S. Swanson. “Prevalence of Infection-Competent Serogroup 6 Legionella pneumophila within Premise Plumbing in Southeast Michigan.” mBio 9, no. 1 (January/February 2018): 1–17.

Byrnes, Annie. “Amid the Flint Water Crisis, Journalists Are Calling for Changes to Michigan’s FOIA Law.” Poynter, February 2, 2016.

Cable, Sherry, Tamara Mix, and Donald Hasting. “Mission Impossible? Environmental Justice Movement Collaboration with Professional Environmentalists and with Academics.” In Power, Justice, and the Environment: A Critical Appraisal of the Environmental Justice Movement, edited by David Naguib Pellow and Robert J. Brulle, 55–76. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.

Callon, Michel, Pierre Lascoumes, and Yannick Barthe. Acting in an Uncertain World: An Essay on Technical Democracy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009.

Campbell, Andrew Morton, Mona Hanna-Attisha, and Jenny LaChance. “Flint Blood Lead Levels: Four Questions.” American Journal of Public Health 106, no. 12 (December 2016): e6–e7.

Campbell, Bob, ed. Poison on Tap: How Government Failed Flint, and the Heroes Who Fought Back. Traverse City, MI: Mission Point Press, 2016.

Campbell, Carla, Rachael Greenberg, Deepa Mankikar, and Ronald D. Ross. “A Case Study of Environmental Injustice: The Failure in Flint.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13, no. 10 (2016):

Carpenter, Zoë. “How the EPA Has Failed to Challenge Environmental Racism in Flint—and Beyond.” The Nation, January 28, 2016.

Carravallah, Laura A., Lawrence A. Reynolds, and Susan J. Woolford. “Lessons for Physicians from Flint’s Water Crisis.” AMA Journal of Ethics 19, no. 10 (October 2017): 1001–1010.

Carotta, Christin L., Amy E. Bonomi, Karleigh Knox, Morgan C. Blain, and Brianna F. Dines. “Flint’s Children: Narratives on Hope.” Qualitative Report 22, no. 9 (September 2017): 2437–2453.

Cavalier, Darlene, and Eric B. Kennedy, eds. The Rightful Place of Science: Citizen Science. Tempe, AZ: Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes, 2016.

Ceaser, Donovon. “Significant Life Experiences and Environmental Justice: Positionality and the Significance of Negative Social/Environmental Experiences.” Environmental Education Research 21, no. 2 (2015): 205–220.

Center for Michigan. Fractured Trust: Lost Faith in State Government, and How to Restore It. March 2017.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) after the Flint Water Crisis: May 17−19, 2016. July 2016.

Chambers, Edward. Roots for Radicals: Organizing for Power, Action, and Justice. New York: Continuum, 2003.

Chariton, Jordan. “EXCLUSIVE: Flint Water Declared ‘Restored’ after Michigan’s Environmental Agency Broke EPA Testing Regulations.” Medium, November 1, 2018,

Chariton, Jordan. “Fraudulence in Flint: How Suspect Science Helped Declare the Water Crisis Over.” Truthdig, May 27, 2018.

Chaskin, Robert J. “Building Community Capacity: A Definitional Framework and Case Studies from a Comprehensive Community Initiative.” Urban Affairs Review 36, no. 3 (January 2001): 291–323.

Chavez, Manuel, Marta Perez, Carin Tunney, and Silvia Núñez. “Accountability and Transparency Diluted in the Flint Water Crisis: A Case of Institutional Implosion.” Norteamérica 12, no. 1 (January–June 2017): 11–52.

Checker, Melissa. Polluted Promises: Environmental Racism and the Search for Justice in a Southern Town. New York: New York University Press, 2005.

Christensen, Peter, David Andrew Keiser, and Gabriel E. Lade. “The Effects of Information Provision on Housing Markets and Avoidance Behavior: Evidence from the Flint, MI Drinking Water Crisis.” Iowa State University, 2017.

Clark, Anna. “The City That Unpoisoned Its Pipes.” Next City, August 8, 2016.

Clark, Anna. “Flint Prepares to Be Left Behind Once More.” New Republic, March 3, 2016.

Clark, Anna. “A Guide to the 15 Powerful People Charged with Poisoning Flint.” Splinter, June 19, 2017.

Clark, Anna. “How the Flint Water Crisis and a Statehouse Scandal Gave a Boost to FOIA Reform in Michigan.” Columbia Journalism Review, June 21, 2016.

Clark, Anna. The Poisoned City: Flint’s Water and the American Urban Tragedy. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2018.

Clark, Anna. “The Struggle for Accountability in Flint.” Boston Review, February 2, 2016.

Clark, Anna. “Will Anyone Be Held at Fault over Flint?” CityLab, August 29, 2018.

Clark, Anna, and Josh Kramer. “‘An Equal Opportunity Lie’: How Housing Discrimination Led to the Flint Water Crisis.” Splinter, December 5, 2017.

Clark, Karen. “The Value of Water: The Flint Water Crisis as a Devaluation of Natural Resources, Not a Matter of Racial Justice.” Environmental Justice 9, no. 4 (2016): 99–102.

Clinton, Hillary. What Happened. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2017.

Cnaan, Ram A. “Neighborhood-representing Organizations: How Democratic Are They?” Social Service Review 65, no. 4 (1991): 614–634.

Coalition for Clean Water. “Coalition for Clean Water: Flint Is Not in the Clear.” People’s Tribune, June 2015.

Code, Lorraine. What Can She Know?: Feminist Theory and the Construction of Knowledge. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Cole, Luke, and Sheila Foster. From the Ground Up: Environmental Racism and the Rise of the Environmental Justice Movement. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

Colton, Roger. Memo to City of Flint on Water Affordability. April 24, 2015.

Community Foundation of Greater Flint and Michigan State University, Department of Community Sustainability and Office of Outreach and Engagement. Voices of Flint Project: Research Summary. Flint Resident Perceptions about the Causes, Consequences, and Solutions to the Flint Water Crisis. December 9, 2016.

Conde, Marta. “Activism Mobilising Science.” Ecological Economics 105 (September 2014): 67–77.

Conway, Kyle J. “There’s Something in the Water: How Apathetic State Officials Let the People of Flint, Michigan Down.” Villanova Environmental Law Journal 29, no. 1 (2018): 57–80.

Cooper, Caren. Citizen Science: How Ordinary People Are Changing the Face of Discovery. New York: Overlook Press, 2016.

Cooper, Caren B., and Bruce V. Lewenstein, “Two Meanings of Citizen Science.” In The Rightful Place of Science: Citizen Science, edited by Darlene Cavalier and Eric B. Kennedy. Tempe, AZ: Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes, 2016.

Corburn, Jason. Street Science: Community Knowledge and Environmental Health Justice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.

Cornwell, David A., Richard A. Brown, and Steve H. Via. “National Survey of Lead Service Line Occurrence.” Journal—American Water Works Association 108, no. 4 (April 2016): e182–e191.

Counts, John. “Flint Water Crisis Got Its Start as a Money-Saving Move in Department of Treasury.” MLive, May 3, 2016.

Counts, John. “How Government Poisoned the People of Flint.” MLive, January 21, 2016.

Coyne, Connor. “Flint, Michigan’s Water Crisis: What the National Media Got Wrong.” Vox, January 20, 2016.

Coyne, Connor. “The Flint Water Crisis Is Not Over.” Vox, December 21, 2016.

Coyne, Connor. “I Live in Flint. All the Justice in the World Won’t Undo the Damage Done Here.” Vox, June 15, 2017.

Craft-Blacksheare, Melva Gale. “Lessons Learned from the Crisis in Flint, Michigan Regarding the Effects of Contaminated Water on Maternal and Child Health.” JOGNN 46, no. 2 (March/April 2017): 258–266.

Craven, Julia, and Tyler Tynes. “The Racist Roots of Flint’s Water Crisis.” Huffington Post, February 3, 2016.

Crosby, Andrew, and Donijo Robbins. “Mission Impossible: Monitoring Municipal Fiscal Sustainability and Stress in Michigan.” Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting, and Financial Management 25, no. 3 (Fall 2013): 522–555.

Culler, Jonathan. The Pursuit of Signs: Semiotics, Literature, Deconstruction. London: Routledge, 1981.

Cuthbertson, Courtney A., Cathy Newkirk, Joan Ilardo, Scott Loveridge, and Mark Skidmore. “Angry, Scared, and Unsure: Mental Health Consequences of Contaminated Water in Flint, Michigan.” Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 93, no. 6 (2016): 899–908.

Daisy, Michael, ed. Detroit Water and Sewerage Department: The First 300 Years. Detroit: City of Detroit, 2002.

Dalsgaard, Steffen. “The Ethnographic Use of Facebook in Everyday Life.” Anthropological Forum 26, no. 1 (2016): 96–114.

Dana, David A. “Escaping the Abdication Trap When Cooperative Federalism Fails: Legal Reform after Flint.” Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law and Legal Theory Series, no. 17–08 (March 2017): 1–36.

Dana, David A., and Deborah Tuerkheimer. “After Flint: Environmental Justice as Equal Protection.” Northwestern University Law Review 111, no. 3 (2017): 879–890.

Dandaneau, Steven P. A Town Abandoned: Flint, Michigan, Confronts Deindustrialization. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996.

Davis, Joseph E., ed. Stories of Change: Narrative and Social Movements. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002.

Davis, Katrinell M. “False Assurances: The Effects of Corrosive Drinking Water and Noncompliance with Lead Control Policies in Flint, Michigan.” Environmental Justice 9, no. 4 (August 2016): 103–108.

Dawsey, Chastity Pratt. “Soaring Pneumonia Deaths in Genesee County Likely Linked to Undiagnosed Legionnaires’, Experts Say.” Bridge Magazine, January 26, 2017.

Dawson, Emily L. “Lessons Learned from Flint, Michigan: Managing Multiple Source Pollution in Urban Communities.” William and Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review 26, no. 2 (2001): 367–405.

Delaney, Arthur. “Mark Ruffalo’s Water Nonprofit Has Allied Itself with an Opportunistic Sponge Salesman.” Huffington Post, May 23, 2016.

Dellapenna, Joseph W. “The Water Crisis in Flint, Michigan: Profitability, Cost-Effectiveness, and Depriving People of Water.” In The Role of Integrity in the Governance of the Commons, edited by Laura Westra, Janice Gray, and Franz-Theo Gottwald, 91–104. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017.

Democracy Now! “On World Water Day, See Our Extended Interview with Flint Activists Nayyirah Shariff & Melissa Mays.” March 22, 2016.

Dennis, Brady. “The EPA’s Lead-in-Water Rule Has Been Faulted for Decades. Will Flint Hasten a Change?” Washington Post, May 5, 2016.

Dettloff, Dean, and Matt Bernico. “Atmoterrorism and Atmodesign in the 21st Century, Mediating Flint’s Water Crisis.” Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 13, no. 1 (2017): 156–189.

Dietz, Mary G. “Citizenship with a Feminist Face: The Problem with Maternal Thinking.” Political Theory 13, no. 1 (February 1985): 19–37.

Doan, Michael D. “Epistemic Injustice and Epistemic Redlining.” Ethics and Social Welfare 11, no. 2 (February 2017): 177–190.

Dodge, Jennifer. “Environmental Justice and Deliberative Democracy: How Social Change Organizations Respond to Power in the Deliberative System.” Policy and Society 28, no. 3 (2009): 225–239.

Doidge, Mary, Eric Scorsone, Traci Taylor, Josh Sapotichne, Erika Rosebrook, and Danielle Kaminski. “The Flint Fiscal Playbook: An Assessment of the Emergency Manager Years (2011–2015).” MSU Extension White Paper, July 31, 2015.

Dorka, Lilian. EPA Final Genesee Complaint Letter to Director Grether. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency, 2017.

Dorya, Gabriela, Z. Qiu, C. Qiu, M. R. Fu, and C. E. Ryan. “Lived Experiences of Reducing Environmental Risks in an Environmental Justice Community.” Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 5, no. 4 (2015): 128–141.

Dorya, Gabriela, Z. M. Qiu, C. Qiu, M. R. Fu, and C. E. Ryan. “A Phenomenological Understanding of Residents’ Emotional Distress of Living in an Environmental Justice Community.” International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being 12, no. 1 (2017): 1–10.

Douglas, Mary. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concept of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge, 2002.

Douglas, Mary, and Aaron Wildavsky. Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technological and Environmental Dangers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.

Drum, Kevin. “In Flint, We Are Laying Tragedy on Top of Tragedy on Top of Tragedy.” Mother Jones, January 26, 2017.

Drum, Kevin. “Lead Did Not Turn Flint Children into Idiots. Stop Saying So.” Mother Jones, February 9, 2018.

Drum, Kevin. “The Water in Flint Is Now Better than Bottled Water.” Mother Jones, November 21, 2016.

Dryzek, John. “Democratization as Deliberative Capacity Building.” Comparative Political Studies 42, no. 11 (April 2009): 1379–1402.

Duntley-Matos, Roxanna, Victoria Arteaga, Angel García, Rafael Arellano, Roberto Garza, and Robert M. Ortega. “‘We Always Say: And Then Came the Water …’ Flint’s Emergent Latinx Capacity Building Journey during the Government-Induced Lead Crisis.” Journal of Community Practice 25, nos. 3-4 (2017): 365-390.

Edelstein, Michael R. Contaminated Communities: Coping with Residential Toxic Exposure. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2004.

Edwards, Marc A. “Failure of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to Protect Children from Elevated Lead in Drinking Water: 2001–Present.” Virginia Tech, March 15, 2016,

Edwards, Marc A. “Fetal Death and Reduced Birth Rates Associated with Exposure to Lead-Contaminated Drinking Water.” Environmental Science and Technology 48, no. 1 (2014): 739–746.

Edwards, Marc A. “Foreword.” In Science for Sale: How the US Government Uses Powerful Corporations and Leading Universities to Support Government Policies, Silence Top Scientists, Jeopardize Our Health, and Protect Corporate Profits, by David L. Lewis, ix–xiii. New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2014.

Edwards, Marc A. “Institutional Scientific Misconduct at U.S. Public Health Agencies: How Malevolent Government Betrayed Flint, MI.” Written statement to United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, February 3, 2016.

Edwards, Marc A., and Amy Pruden. “The Flint Water Crisis: Overturning the Research Paradigm to Advance Science and Defend Public Welfare.” Environmental Science and Technology 50 (2016): 8935–8936.

Edwards, Marc A., and Amy Pruden. “We Helped Flint Residents Save Themselves and Are Proud of It—Staying in Our Ivory Tower Would Have Perpetuated Injustice.” Environmental Science and Technology 50 (2016): 12057.

Edwards, Marc A., and Siddhartha Roy. “Academic Research in the 21st Century: Maintaining Scientific Integrity in a Climate of Perverse Incentives and Hypercompetition.” Environmental Engineering Science 34, no. 1 (January 2017): 51–61.

Edwards, Marc A., Simoni Triantafyllidou, and Dana Best. “Elevated Blood Lead in Young Children Due to Lead-Contaminated Drinking Water: Washington, DC, 2001–2004.” Environmental Science and Technology 43, no. 5 (March 2009): 1618–1623.

Eligon, John. “A Question of Environmental Racism in Flint.” The New York Times, January 21, 2016.

Eng, Bernie. “Editorial: After One Year, Flint Still Needs Emergency Financial Manager.” MLive, December 1, 2012.

Environmental Justice Work Group. “Environmental Justice Work Group Report: Michigan as a Global Leader in Environmental Justice.” March 2018.

Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Equity: Reducing Risks for All Communities. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency, 1992.

Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General. Drinking Water Contamination in Flint, Michigan, Demonstrates a Need to Clarify EPA Authority to Issue Emergency Orders to Protect the Public. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency, 2016.

Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water. Lead and Copper Rule Revisions White Paper. October 2016.

Epstein, Steven. Impure Science: AIDS, Activism, and the Politics of Knowledge. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Erikson, Kai. Everything in Its Path: Destruction of Community in the Buffalo Creek Flood. New York: Touchstone, 1976.

Escobar, Arturo. “Culture, Practice and Politics: Anthropology and the Study of Social Movements.” Critique of Anthropology 12 (1992): 395–432.

Evans, Sara M., and Harry C. Boyte. Free Spaces: The Sources of Democratic Change in America. New York: Perennial Library, 1986.

Faber, Daniel R., and Deborah McCarthy. “Breaking the Funding Barriers: Philanthropic Activism in Support of the Environmental Justice Movement.” In Foundations for Social Change: Critical Perspectives on Philanthropy and Popular Movements, edited by Daniel Faber, Deborah McCarthy, and Deborah McCarthy Auriffeille, 175–210. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005.

Fagin, Dan. Toms River: A Story of Science and Salvation. New York: Bantam Books, 2013.

Farmer, Paul. Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

Fasenfest, David. “A Neoliberal Response to an Urban Crisis: Emergency Management in Flint, MI.” Critical Sociology (August 2017): 1–15.

Fasenfest, David, and Theodore Pride. “Emergency Management in Michigan: Race, Class and the Limits of Liberal Democracy.” Critical Sociology 42, no. 3 (2016): 331–334.

Faust, Kasey M., Dulcy M. Abraham, and Shawn P. McElmurry. “Water and Wastewater Infrastructure Management in Shrinking Cities.” Public Works Management and Policy 21, no. 2 (2015): 128–156.

Faust, Kasey M., Fred L. Mannering, and Dulcy M. Abraham. “Statistical Analysis of Public Perceptions of Water Infrastructure Sustainability in Shrinking Cities.” Urban Water Journal 13, no. 6 (2016): 618–628.

Fewell, Brent. “The Failure of Cooperative Federalism in Flint.” Journal—American Water Works Association 108, no. 3 (March 2016): 12–14.

Fine, Sidney. Sit-Down: The General Motors Strike of 1936–1937. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1969.

Finewood, Michael H., and Ryan Holifield. “Critical Approaches to Urban Water Governance: From Critique to Justice, Democracy, and Transdisciplinary Collaboration.” WIREs Water 2, no. 2 (March/April 2015): 85–96.

Fischer, Frank. Citizens, Experts, and the Environment: The Politics of Local Knowledge. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000.

Flinn, Gary. Hidden History of Flint. Stroud, UK: The History Press, 2017.

Flint Water Advisory Task Force. Final Report. Lansing, MI: Office of Governor Rick Snyder, March 2016.

Flyvbjerg, Bent. “Five Misunderstandings about Case-Study Research.” Qualitative Inquiry 12, no. 2 (April 2006): 219–245.

Food and Water Watch. “U.S. Water Systems Need Sustainable Funding.” Washington, D.C.: Food and Water Watch, May 2016.

Food and Water Watch. Water Injustice: Economic and Racial Disparities in Access to Safe and Clean Water in the United States. Washington, D.C.: Food and Water Watch, March 2017.

Ford, Harold C. “Dayne Walling and the Flint Water Crisis: Victim, Villain or Faithful Servant?” East Village Magazine, January 5, 2017.

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